The tree peony, or as it is also called the semi-shrub peony, is a hybrid species belonging to the genus Peony, the pion family. Some botanists believe that these peonies are not a separate species, but a group of different varieties or hybrids. At the moment there are about 500 of them. Almost all of them grow in China.
The plant of this species was created by Chinese breeders. In Europe, the tree peony began to grow in the eighteenth century. This amazing flower can be grown in our latitudes, the main thing is to follow the rules of caring for this amazing plant and it will delight the gardener with its luxurious buds for many years.
Tree peonies with photos and titles
Yellow Tree Peony - one of the youngest hybrids, which looks not only amazing, but very unusual. The height of the peony bush can reach up to 1.5 meters. Inflorescences are small, terry bright yellow shade. Up to 40 flowers can bloom on a bush during flowering. The plant has feathery, openwork leafy plates of a dark green shade. Flowering time falls on the beginning of summer.
Tree Peony Red Giant - is a late frost-resistant variety, the flowering time of which falls on the last summer months. The height of the bush reaches 1.5 meters. Peony forms from 30 to 70 buds, of which appear large terry inflorescences with a pleasant aroma. The sheet plates are pinnate and dark green in color, retaining their decorative effect until the end of autumn.
Tree Kinko Peony - this shrub reaches a height of 2 meters, is frost-resistant and has large, feathery, saturated green-green leaf plates. On one bush can bloom from 30 to 70 buds, depending on the age of the plant. Inflorescences are large, having a crown shape and a golden hue with a red border. Peony blooms in mid-June.
Peony Tree Sisters Qiao - This is one of the most unusual types of peonies. It has large, terry inflorescences with a pleasant aroma and a two-tone shade. One side of the flower is red, the other is white. Peony bush reaches a height of 1.3 meters and has a beautiful dense foliage of dark green color. Peony blooms in June for two weeks.
Tree Peony White Phoenix
In height, the bush peony reaches up to 2 meters. Due to the lush, feathery foliage of a dark green shade, the peony has a special decorative effect. Unlike other varieties, the inflorescences of this plant resemble not intricate daisies with round, wavy white petals and a red core with golden stamens. The flowering time of the plant falls in the middle of summer.
Tree peony purple - this unusual variety of plant is bred in China. Peony inflorescences are large, terry. At a young age, dark pink, and after five years, they acquire a bright purple hue. In height, the shrub reaches 1.5 meters and has small, dark green feathery leaf plates. The flowering time of the plant falls on the end of spring - the beginning of summer.
Tree Sapphire Peony Blue - is a medium early and medium tall variety, reaching a height of up to 120 centimeters. The leaf plates of the plant are pinnate, openwork medium in size, dark green. Peony flowering time is in the middle of June. Inflorescences are large, terry have a blue-pink shade with purple spots.
Tree Peony Black Panther - peony bush wide, reaching a height of 2 meters. The variety is frost resistant and disease resistant. Leaf plates are large, openwork bright green hue. The inflorescences are large, semi-double dark red with a delicate, pleasant aroma. The flowering time of the plant is in the middle of June.
Tree Peony Gold Scattering
The height of the bush reaches 1.5 meters. This variety is characterized by late flowering, which falls on the beginning of July. The leaf plates of the peony are large, openwork, dark green hue. Semi-double inflorescences have a diameter of about 20 centimeters. The shade of a peony of an unusual soft golden color with a pink frame around the edge of the petals.
Tree Peony White Jade - in height the bush reaches up to 1,3 meters. The inflorescences are semi-double, large, white with a pleasant aroma, in appearance resembling a lotus. The foliage is carved, medium, dark green. The plant blooms in late May - early June.
Shima Nishiki Tree Peony - one of the most spectacular peony species. Compact shrub with dark green, feathery, large foliage, has long shoots with luxurious inflorescences of white with red stripes. Peony blooms for two weeks in June.
Peony Treelike Green Beans - is a deciduous shrub that has strong woody branches, whose height is up to 150 centimeters. The foliage of the plant is thick, pinnate, saturated green. The variety blooms late and is winter-hardy. Inflorescences have a crown-globular shape and whitish-lemon hue.
Peony Treeline Transparent Dew
The variety is distinguished by late flowering, which falls on the beginning of June. The height of the bush with a thick dark green feathery foliage is up to 150 centimeters. Large inflorescences have a spherical shape, pink and blue tint and delicate, pleasant aroma.
Peony Tree Green Ball - late blooming variety, characterized by frost resistance. The height of the bush reaches 1.5 meters. The leaves are thick, dark green, feathery form. Inflorescences are large, externally resembling large, terry roses. The peculiarity of this species is that the opened buds initially have a greenish-lemon hue, then they change their color to pale pink or translucent. Flowering plant in early July.
Tree Peony Scarlet Sails - the grade differs in early blossoming and frost resistance. The height of woody shoots reaches 1.5 meters. The sheet plates are carved, lush, rich green hue. Inflorescences are large, terry, purple color. Peony blooms in mid-May - early June.
Peony Tree Twins - The height of the bush peonies ranges from 110 to 150 centimeters. From 20 to 40 large chrysanthemum inflorescences of purple-red shade with a pleasant aroma for the flowering season, which falls from late May to mid-June, bloom on lignified stems. Peony sheet plates are large, carved rich bright green hue. The variety is resistant to diseases and low temperatures.
Tree peony care and cultivation in the Moscow region
In order for the peony to please with beautiful flowers, as well as actively grow and develop, it is necessary to choose the right time and place for planting this green handsome. The most favorable time for planting in the open ground is considered the end of summer or the beginning of autumn.
It is best to plant a peony on a hill that will not be illuminated by direct sunlight. Nearby should not be thick trees and buildings, as they will create a thick shadow, which is unacceptable for the plant. The best option for a luxurious flower would be a light shadow.
If we talk about spring planting, then it is not recommended because of the too long and heavy adaptation period of the plant, since at this time it is undergoing active growth and vegetation, to which all its forces must go.
A slightly acidified loam mixed with a small amount of lime, organic matter and coarse river sand will be the ideal soil for the plant. Plant a peony in such a way that its root system is away from the groundwater. A thick layer of drainage, consisting of a mixture of coarse river sand and fine expanded clay, must be laid at the bottom of the landing pit.
Tree Peony Planting
To plant a plant in an open ground, one should dig up a planting hole and pour a small earthen hill inside it, on which it is necessary to put a bush, straighten its roots and moisten the ground well. After the water goes into the mix, the seedling should be poured so that its root collar is above the ground surface.
If the gardener decided to plant several plants at once, then this should be done with the observance of two-meter distance between the young bushes. Many people believe that this plant is fastidious, but in fact it is not quite so, because fastidiousness is to create optimal conditions for the growth and development of the flower, and does not at all concern caring for it.
Peony does not like direct sunlight and strong waterlogging of the soil, which can rot the root system. For a young bush to grow beautiful and lush, it needs a lot of space. The soil for the plant must be nutritious, with good breathability and drainage. In principle, it is quite simple to create such conditions, therefore, to grow a chic peony is possible not only for an experienced gardener, but also for a beginner.
If you have grassy peonies, which are also beautiful and elegant as a tree. Which are grown with the same ease when planting and caring in the open field, if the rules of agrotechnology are observed. With all the necessary recommendations you can read in this article.
Tree Peony Planting Tips
In order for the plant to bloom, grow and develop as needed, experienced gardeners advise to do the following:
- It is best to prepare the landing pit in advance - one month before disembarking. Preparation consists in applying fertilizers to the soil so that they soak it properly.
- When planting at the bottom of the pit on top of the drainage should be put humus, a small layer of garden soil, pour a little complex fertilizer on top, one article. a spoon of copper sulphate and a little lime.
- If a gardener purchased a sapling at the end of autumn or at the beginning of winter, then it should be “adjusted” by the end of next summer. For this purpose, you should take a small container with the necessary soil for the plant and plant a bush in it, after which the plant pot should be removed to a cool, well-lit room. During the period of sleep, the plant will take root, and at the end of next summer it can be planted in open ground.
Having listened to the advice of experienced flower growers, they will be able to grow a healthy and luxurious plant that will delight you with beautiful, bright peonies every summer.
Watering Tree Peony
One bush requires from 6 to 8 liters of fluid. Watering should be carried out at least twice a month. However, it is necessary to take into account precipitation. If the summer is rainy, the peony can not be watered, and if it is dry, then watering should be increased to three times a month.
Starting from August, watering should be reduced to their complete exclusion. Loosen the ground around the bush should be a few days after watering, when the top layer of soil dries. If desired, the space around the bush can be thrashed with a thin layer of humus.
Soil for tree peony
The ideal soil for the plant will be loam, however, if there is sandy ground on the plot, then before planting it must be mixed with turf soil, clay, peat and humus. To improve the air permeability and nutritional value, river sand and organic matter should be led into the landing pit.
If the soil is acidic, then the pH can be reduced by adding a small amount of hydrated lime to the soil. At the bottom of the landing pit, it is necessary to put drainage from expanded clay and river sand, thus, it will be possible to protect the peony root system from stagnation of water.
Tree Peony Transplant
This type of peony does not tolerate transplantation. After it, the plant has been ill for several years, since it will be very difficult for him to recover from the procedure. Transplanting should be done carefully at the end of summer or early autumn. Dig the plant should be with the Committee, which then must be washed with water from the hose.
After the whole earth has been washed off, the root system should be checked by cutting off the long roots and removing the rotted roots. After pruning the roots, they need to be treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and powdered cuts with charcoal.
Before planting the plant in the ground, the root system must be dipped in a clay-based mash. The period of recovery of the pion can take from six months to several years.
Feeding tree peony
The tree pion needs potassium and nitrogen as a fertilizer. During the vegetative period, nitrogenous fertilizers should be applied to the soil, and potassium and phosphoric fertilizers should be introduced during the formation of buds.
When the plant blooms to the potash and phosphate dressing should add nitrogenous fertilizer. It is very important not to overfeed the pion, otherwise it can lead to rotting of the root system.
Top dressing should be carried out with watering in order not to burn the roots. When the peony is fading, the flower stalks should be removed, and before the rest period, 300 grams of wood ash and 200 grams of bone meal should be added to the soil.
Tree peony timing and duration of flowering
The flowering time of the plant depends on the variety. It can begin in May, June or July. Duration of flowering is from 12 to 14 days. Peony flowers can be medium, large and small, as well as have different shades from white and purple to purple and lemon green.
The inflorescences themselves may resemble roses, lotuses and even daisies. Flowering peonies not only delight the eye with its beauty and grace, but also fill the garden with delicate fragrance.
Tree Peony Trimming
Tree peony does not like pruning. It is impossible to cut the plant in autumn, as a result of abundant flowering at the flower buds begin to be laid on last year’s branches. Formative pruning should be carried out in the spring, after the appearance of the kidneys. Carry out the procedure every few years.
At other times, only loose or damaged branches can be removed. Weak shoots should be cut to half, and in young bushes to remove some of the formed buds, so as not to weaken and allow them to develop. If the winter is harsh and the plant is frozen severely, a cardinal pruning should be done at the root to help it recover.
Tree peony preparation for winter
Since the tree peony is a cold-resistant plant, it is not afraid of cold, but the early thaw can be harmful, because during warming the plant begins to wake up and grow, and when frost appears, it simply dies.
To avoid this, the peony should be carefully prepared for the winter. In October, you need to gather the branches together and tie them up, after that you need to mulch the peat around the bush. Before the cold should cover bush bush with spruce branches or jute bags. It is necessary to open a peony in the spring, after the threat of frost has passed.
Tree peony reproduction by bush division
Reproduction bush division occurs as follows. A gardener needs to choose an adult plant with strong shoots. The bush must have at least eight branches. The division procedure is carried out in late summer - early fall.
The selected peony must be excavated, cleaned of soil and rinse the root system. Then the branches are cut to a size of 10 centimeters and the roots are dried for about three hours in the shade. The finished plant is divided into several blanks, each of which must have at least two buds. The cut sections are treated with crushed charcoal and fungicide.
In order to less injure the roots, you can gently stretch them without a knife, and before planting you must dip them in a clay talker.
Reproduction of tree peony cuttings
Peony can also be propagated by cuttings. To do this, choose an adult plant with buds and half lignified branches. Carry out the procedure in June or August. Selected branches are neatly cut with a knife under the kidney diagonally, leaf plates are also removed by 2/3 of the branch. The cut is kept in a growth stimulator for about half an hour and planted in a box with earth with a mixture of peat and sand.
After planting, the ground is covered with a sand layer. Boxes with seedlings are wrapped in a film and they maintain the necessary microclimate until autumn. In early October, rooted cuttings are transplanted into the greenhouse, where they will stay until spring, and in spring they are planted in open ground. This method is not the most convenient, since young plants will begin to bloom only after five years.
Tree peony reproduction by layering
In order to propagate a peony with the help of layering, you should start the procedure in May, when it blooms. For reproduction, you need to choose the strongest branch, press it to the soil and make an incision in the place where it touches the ground.
To make rooting faster, the incision should be processed with a growth stimulator and put a spacer. Place the cut to sprinkle with a thick layer of soil. The new root system will appear by September.
Tree Peony Grafting
Propagation by vaccination is the most time consuming method. As a stock, it is necessary to take a segment of the roots of an ordinary pion with a length of about 15 centimeters. The graft is cut from a branch of the tree peony, which has two eyes.
Корни подвойного пиона следует выдержать три недели в подвале, после этого нужно сделать на нем клиновой вырез, разрезая таким же образом и нижнюю часть. Оба среза на привое и подвое должны идеально сочетаться.
Далее, срезы следует соединить, смазать садовым варом, обмотать полиэтиленовым пакетом, и положить в ящик, пересыпав влажными опилками и убрав в прохладное место.
На протяжении месяца, пока будет происходить срастание привитого саженца, его не следует вынимать из ящика. Через месяц когда саженец срастется, его можно пересаживать в открытый грунт.
Tree peony diseases and pests
Tree peony, in contrast to the usual, is much more resistant to diseases and pests. However, with improper care and waterlogging, he could be threatened with brown spot and gray rot.
- These diseases often affect weakened or young bushes. When gray rot appears, damaged branches should be cut and sprayed with a weak solution of manganese.. In the future, observe the correctness of watering and not re-moisten the soil.
- Brown spotting affects leafy plates and branches. If they appear rusty plaque, then the damaged areas should be removed, after which the plant must be treated with a solution of 6% copper sulphate.
Of the pests threaten the plant only caterpillarsthat eat the foliage. To get rid of them, the pion should be sprayed with the insecticide "Fitoverm".
Antsthe plants appearing on buds do not bear any danger, they collect nectar and do not take any measures to destroy them.
Possible difficulties in growing tree peony
Gardeners who choose to decorate their homestead with this beautiful, ornamental plant often face a number of problems concerning the cultivation of this luxurious flower. These include:
No peony bloom - there are several reasons for this problem. They consist in too deep penetration of the root system, freezing of flower buds due to insufficient shelter of the peony for the winter or too sour soil. After eliminating all the above problems, the peony will surely bloom next season.
No peony growth - it should be noted that the pion grows very slowly, however, if the plant is over five years old and there is no growth, the reason for this may be an improper planting, leading to a deepening of the roots or a lack of fertilizers necessary for growth and full development.
Peony leaves twisting - most often to the twisting of the leaves leads to such a disease as gray mold. To eliminate it, the plant should be treated with the drug "Actellic" according to the instructions on the package.
Peony leaves yellowing - The reason for this is the ants, who settled under a bush or too heavy ground with a minimum of nutrients. Transplantation of a plant to a new, nutritious, peony-friendly soil will help eliminate both of these problems.
Wilting and drying plants - the plant may wither and dry due to lack of moisture and sunlight. Also, this problem may cause a soil that is not suitable for peony and lack of fertilizer. In most cases, it is solved by transplanting to a new place with ideal conditions for the flower.
Poor tree survival rate - The reason for the wrong planting or inappropriate conditions for the plant. Having created the necessary microclimate for peony and having made its proper planting, guided by the advice of experienced gardeners, the plant will surely take root and grow.
Tree peony is rightly considered a real garden aristocrat. For him to grow and please with his beautiful flowers for many years, it is enough to provide him with the necessary care that even a novice gardener can do.
Therefore, if you dream about this magnificent plant, feel free to plant it, and after a few years it will delight you with abundant flowering and decorativeness, which will favorably distinguish it against the other inhabitants of the garden.
Tree peony: growing requirements
This flower can not be called capricious, but in order to achieve lush flowering and preserve the plant in frosty winters, it is necessary to follow certain agricultural techniques.
Planting in open ground
These charming flowers are long-lived. In China, there are plants planted more than 800 (!) Years ago. In our harsh climate they don’t last so long, but in order for their flowering to delight not only you, but also your children and grandchildren, it is necessary to plant tree peonies correctly.
This plant does not tolerate overmoistening of the soil, so its planting should include drainage, which is made of small stones or small pieces of brick.
When the groundwater is high, the plants are planted on high ridges.
It must meet the following conditions:
- to be well lit throughout the day, a small lace shadow is allowed and even desirable in the hottest time - this will prolong flowering,
- to be protected from strong winds - they prevent flower buds from laying,
- not having water stagnation - even a few days in the water during the melting of snow in spring is enough and flowers may die,
- remoteness from other plants - tree peony roots react negatively to the presence of "neighbors",
- if several varieties are planted, the distance between the plants should not be less than one and a half meters - the diameter of the crown of the tree peony is equal to its height, and this flower does not grow in crush.
Tree peonies do not like heavy clay soils, or too light sandy. The best option is loam, which has good moisture permeability and air saturation. Soil acidity is another important indicator, which should be in the range of 6.1 to 6.8.
If the soil does not meet the requirements of plants, it has to be improved by adding the necessary components and liming. Sand is added to clay soil, and clay is added to sand soil. It is always better to carry out liming in the fall and in no case combine with the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers, since nitrogen is lost when the lime is applied. If such a procedure could not be carried out in the fall, ashes are added to the pit, which not only reduces the acidity of the soil, but also contains micro and macro elements necessary for the plants.
How and when to plant?
The best time in which planting a tree peony is optimal, starting in August and ending in October. The warmer the plant growing region, the later it can be planted. The basic rule that should be followed is that it should take at least a month from landing to the arrival of frost. This time it takes the flower to root well.
- A pit for landing a peony in the ground is prepared in advance so that the earth will settle, the most correct thing is to do it in spring. Land needs to be thoroughly cleaned of weeds. The pit for planting should have a depth and diameter of at least fifty centimeters.
- The bottom layer is drainage. Its thickness depends on the natural moisture of the soil, but not less than twenty centimeters. If the soil is peaty, it is changed completely. Other types of soil are adjusted in accordance with the requirements of the plant. In any case, the lower layer should consist of humus or a mixture of bone meal and excavated soil in a ratio of one to two with the addition of two hundred grams of superphosphate and one hundred fifty grams of potassium sulfate. Bonemeal will naturally enrich the soil with phosphorus. Very good to add a glass of wood ash. Planting tree peony is made so as to exclude contact of the roots with fertilizers - this can lead to their burns and further decay.
- In half filled with a prepared earthen mixture and watered pit put the plant in a plastic container, carefully cut off the bottom around the perimeter and gently pull out from under the flower. Then cut the sides and completely remove the container. They fill up the hole to the top, controlling the location of the root collar - it should be at the level of the edges of the hole. It is better to carry out the last operation with an assistant.
- If the seedling with a closed root system - carefully remove it from the pot and then act as in the first case.
- The main condition for proper planting is to preserve the suction roots as much as possible. After the procedure, the plant is well watered, water needs five liters per bush. If the root stimulator is dissolved in water (heteroauxin, root) according to the norm on the package, this will help the plant to take root successfully.
If there is a desire to make a grafted plant own-rooted, the root neck is buried by ten to fifteen centimeters. In this case, you will need to take care of additional heat to the roots. No closer than fifteen centimeters from the plant, two or three bottles of dark glass, with the neck down, are half-buried in a circle. You can wet the kerosene cloth and put them in bottles. The smell of kerosene will save the roots from damage by moles and a bear.
In practice, the mass supply of tree peony roots occurs at the end of winter - the beginning of spring. And yet, during this period the plant is better not to plant. Why is spring planting undesirable?
Saplings with an open root system have practically no thin suction roots that feed the plant. If you plant the pions in the spring, they quickly start to grow under the influence of high temperature. This is facilitated by the supply of nutrients in the rhizomes, which are quickly depleted. In heat, the growth of the suction roots occurs slowly and as a result, an imbalance appears between the underground and aboveground parts of the plant. Because of the lack of nutrition, the plants weaken, all the forces will go to restore them, which means that it will not be necessary to wait for flowering next year. Therefore, it is better to grow seedlings with an open root system by planting them in a plastic bottle with loose soil and holes made to drain water. Keep her in a cold basement.
Subtleties growing tree peonies
- The grafted tree peonies are planted immediately to a permanent place; these plants do not tolerate transplanting.
- Place for planting away from the trees and shrubs.
- And also closed from drafts.
- Peony loves the morning and evening sun, at noon shading is desirable. In the bright sun the flowers fade and quickly fade.
- Damp and flooded spring areas are not suitable for growing tree peonies, water drainage and drainage should be provided, and bulk mounds should be constructed during planting.
- Soil with alkaline reaction (7.5-8 pH) for tree peonies is preferable to acidic.
- If the roots of the seedlings are very dry, they should be soaked in water for half an hour.
Own and grafted tree peonies
Tree peonies are rooted and grafted. Those and others have their own merits and characteristics that must be considered when growing. Some issues are different and requirements for care.
Own root tree peonies in suitable conditions will live for a very long time, more than 20 years (theoretically up to 200 years). They are very viable, winter well, resistant to disease. Own-stuffed peonies are easy to propagate by dividing the bush.
The inconvenience can be attributed to the fact that such peonies bloom only 4-5 years after planting and grow slowly during the first five years. To this age reach a height of 60-70 cm.
Dignity grafted tree peoniesfor the sake of what they are bred and - rapid growth and flowering. Flowering plants can be obtained even in the year of planting, and certainly the next year. The roots for grafted tree peonies are the most durable and resistant peony varieties of the herbaceous P. lactiflora. Such plants show rapid growth, up to 50 cm per year.
Grafted peonies may not be as durable as the roots of the grassy peony, to which they are grafted, over time, grow strongly, become hollow inside and rot.
Another drawback - they do not multiply by dividing the bush.
Also, unlike the root-rooted ones, they don’t tolerate the transplant, so they should be planted immediately to a permanent place.
When buying, own-rooted and grafted peonies are easily distinguished by their roots. They are numerous, long and relatively thin (about 5–8 mm in diameter) and have a light brown color. Grafted peonies have thick roots 4-5 cm in diameter (these are rootstock roots - grassy peony).
Plant on the plot and own perennial and grafted perennials. While some develop and reach the age of flowering, the latter will actively bloom.
Planting time of tree peony depends on the type of seedling acquired: with an open root system (ACS) - sold both with bare roots and in a substrate, or with a closed root system (PCS) - sold in containers.
Saplings with ZKS can be planted at almost any time. If you plant a grafted peony with ZKS in the spring, you can get the first bloom in the same season.
Saplings with ACS is preferably planted in August - September. With the spring planting of such seedlings with the onset of heat, the development of green mass is ahead of the development of the roots. This is because on the bare root system there are practically no suction small roots necessary for the plant, they are formed when the roots are in the soil at low positive temperatures. The plant barely takes root, develops poorly and looks depressed. And the flowering of such a peony comes later.
How to store seedlings before planting
If a sapling with ACS is bought in winter or spring, they practice “intermediate” planting in a container until autumn. The container needs a volume of about 5 liters, with holes for water flow. It is advisable to take the soil without acid, to put drainage at the bottom of the tank.
Until spring, the peony is kept in a room where a positive, but close to zero temperature is constantly maintained, for example, in a cellar or on a loggia, and if conditions and weather permit, prikopat in snow. Watering is rare and little, only so that the soil does not dry out. The purpose of such a planting is to prevent the plant from growing up as long as possible and to allow the suction roots to grow.
If the shoots still began to grow, when the sapling reached a size of 15-20 cm, it should be placed in a light, but still cool room, while maintaining minimal watering. If there are leaves on the pion, it is useful to spray the preparation “ferovit”.
With the onset of the summer season, a container with a seedling is taken out into the garden, and there they also find for him the coolest, but not windy, corner in the open shadow of the trees. And in August-September, the strengthened sapling is resettled for permanent residence.
The soil before planting pions should settle, so the pits are prepared in advance, no less than 2 weeks before planting.
The size of the landing holes is large: not less than 40 cm in diameter and 50 cm in depth. Drainage is placed at the bottom with a thickness of at least 10 cm, preferably 20-30 cm. The distance between the pits 1 is 1.5 m.
Prepare a fertile soil containing peat or compost, humus, sand in equal shares, add bone meal (200-400 g).
If buds have already formed on the seedling, they should be cut before planting.
Part of the prepared soil is poured into the landing pit. Sapling with ZKS just roll over with a lump of earth. From above pour the remained soil before filling of a hole.
For planting a seedling with an ACS, a bucket of soil mixture is poured into the pit, a seedling is installed on the formed hillock, gently straightening the roots on the surface of the hillock.
Plentifully watered with water (4-5 liters per bush), after soaking up, fill up the roots with the remaining earth. The seedling is arranged in such a way that the root neck is at ground level. Soil neatly, but not too tightly tamped. Top mulch humus or peat, deepening the neck by 3-4 cm.
When planting, mineral fertilizer is also added: either to the soil mixture (superphosphate) or liquid (simultaneously with irrigation).
Care back tree peony
Peonies need abundant watering in the spring, if the soil contains little moisture, and in the period before the start of flowering. Further watering is carried out moderately, as necessary.
It is undesirable to water the plants with cold water from a water supply system or a well; water for irrigation must be stored in barrels for preheating. Watering, especially after a long break, is carried out gradually, in portions, so that water in sufficient quantities reaches the roots and does not spread on the ground.
After flowering, watering is reduced and by August they stop altogether so that the wood has time to mature before winter.
For good flowering fertilizer need to be made every 12 days. Begin feeding in April, and the last time contribute 12 -14 days after flowering. Wood ash and bone meal, as well as mineral fertilizers are well suited as fertilizers. In used mineral fertilizers phosphorus and potash components should prevail.
Excess nitrogen fertilizer reduces the resistance of pions to diseases.
Often the first flowers of the tree peony do not reflect all the beauty of their variety, they have a simpler form. This is especially evident in terry varieties and varieties with "fantasy" petals. Fully comply with the characteristics of their variety, they recite 2-3 year of flowering.
The first blooming flower must be carefully removed as soon as it opens, so that the plant accumulates strength to form new flowers. Sometimes a peony in the first bloom gives two buds at once. In this case, you need to remove the top bud before it opens, but only after it has picked up color. If removed earlier, there is a risk of damage to the point of growth of the shoot. Remove the second flower when it opens.
Tree peonies tolerate pruning well and quickly acquire new shoots.
In early spring, rejuvenating pruning is carried out on tree peonies, shortening shoots to a growth bud. Weak shoots pruned, leaving 10-20 cm from the ground.
In late spring, if necessary, pruned shoots are frozen in winter.
When pruning must take into account that the flowering of these pions occurs on the shoots of the past year.
Старые (возрастом более 10 лет) экземпляры с целью омоложения можно обрезать «на пень».
Чтобы получить более крупные цветки, рекомендуется при весенней обрезке удалить треть всех образовавшихся бутонов.
У привитых экземпляров со временем может образовываться прикорневая поросль от подвоя. Такую поросль нужно обрезать, чтобы она не мешала развиваться древовидному пиону.
Пересадку корнесобственных пионов проводят осенью или зимой (в этом случае осенью нужно подготовить посадочные ямы). Adults are well overgrown with peonies, so that they take root in a new place, they cut very hard, remove most of the old shoots.
Preparing for the winter
The tree peony is a fairly cold-resistant plant, even significant frost is not terrible for it, but it is unfavorable for it in a damp warm autumn. In such circumstances, the pion continues to grow, does not have time to "fall asleep" before the onset of cold weather. Therefore, most often when grown in the middle lane and north-western regions, the plant needs special preparation for winter. For this you need:
- As mentioned above, in advance, starting in August, stop watering.
- If the end of summer and autumn were rainy, it will not be superfluous to organize canopies protecting the bushes from moisture during this period.
- Deeply gnaw and grumble near-stem circles with peat or humus (1 bucket of mulch for each bush).
- Conduct pruning: in early October, the peony pruned leaves to 2/3 of the length, this contributes to the better maturation of the shoots of the current year and increases the frost resistance of the plant.
- Cover plants with any covering material folded in several layers. Bottom of the root covering material is not tied - leave the possibility of access to air.
Peonies in spring
If, after wintering, frozen buds were seen on the bushes, no need to rush to pruning. It is better to wait until the end of May and, if the plant has not recovered, cut off the frozen shoots to the first living bud. Soon, such a shoot will start to grow.
1. Reproduction by dividing the bush
Own-headed tree peonies aged 5-6 years can be propagated by dividing the bush. The optimal time for this procedure is mid-August -September.
On a suitable site for planting, there should be young roots about 10–20 cm long and 2–3 kidney renewals; in a healthy planting material, these buds are large, bright and shiny.
Slices should be treated with fungicide and powdered with charcoal powder.
Next, landing delenok produced, as described in the previous sections.
2. Reproduction by layering
Another simple breeding method is layering. The right time for this is May, before flowering begins.
- A developed shoot is taken, a longitudinal incision is made on the bark, 10 cm long, not too deep so as not to touch the cambium (a layer of young growing cells).
- The incision site is treated with root.
- They pin to the ground with a special bracket or handy material.
- Top sprinkled with a layer of soil with a thickness of 8-10 cm.
- Rooting place is kept wet.
In the incision zone by the end of August - the beginning of September, the roots should form. It is possible to separate a young plant from the mother plant in a year in August-September, when it will root well.
As a result, we receive a root-bearing tree-like peony, which, before flowering, will develop long enough, up to 7 years.
3. Propagation by grafting a grass peony to the root
In the middle lane inoculation done in August.
As a stock, the lateral part of the grass peony root, left over from division or specially dug, is taken. Its length is 10-15 cm, the thickness is not less than the thickness of the scion, it is better if the thickness is the same. In this case, the vaccine can be rotated and priklad. If the thickness of the graft is significantly greater - only rotate.
Roots for rootstock are dug 2-3 weeks before vaccination and stored in a cool place.
Cuttings are cut from the semi-woody shoots of the current year. On each handle leave 1-2 buds. The cut under the lower bud is made at a distance of 3-4 cm, above the top - 2-3 cm. The leaves are removed.
To rotate the root, a cross-section is first made, and then a wedge-shaped notch from the middle or on one side, if the diameter of the root is larger than the cutting.
The cutting is cut into a wedge from two sides, it is advisable to do it under water so that the air does not block the porous peony fabric. Next, insert it into the incision, cambial layers of the cutting and rootstock combine. Top wrapped with a special tape for grafting or tape adhesive side out, grabbing a cross-section of the root. Additionally, you can smear the vaccine with garden barb.
For grafting on the handle and bark, a slice is made at a small angle, the cuts are combined and fastened in the same way.
The cuts on the graft and the stock are made with a sharp knife so that they are smooth, the layers of the cambium must be the same when combined.
Grafted plants can be planted in a greenhouse for 3-4 weeks, if necessary, pritenit. Graft when planting leave above ground level. Regularly moisturize the ground.
Another way (preferable if possible) is to withstand the grafted material for 3-4 weeks in the basement in boxes, shifted with sawdust or moss.
After this period, successfully grafted plants can be planted in the ground, placing in the ground at an angle.
In the southern areas, vaccination can also be done in June. The technology of grafting is the same, but most often the stalk is taken with one bud and the leaf on the handle is not removed, but cut in half.
Grafted peonies are then planted at an angle in the sand in a greenhouse with shading. Regularly watered. Dig the plant to the bud. In successful vaccinations by the fall, the kidney increases in size.
In the greenhouse, plants can be left until spring, and in October they can be planted in open ground, having buried the bud by 2-3 cm. In either case, it is necessary to cover the plants for winter with foliage or lapnik for the winter.
4. Reproduction by green cuttings
The method of propagation by green cuttings is laborious, but under all conditions, it is quite effective, 60-70% of the cuttings take root.
The advantage of this method is a large amount of planting material, the ability to perform this work every year using existing plants. The disadvantage is the complexity and long wait for flowering.
Cuttings harvested from June to July, when the process of lignification begins. Cutting done early in the morning.
Two buds are left on each handle, under the lower kidney they make an oblique cut at a distance of 1.5-2.5 cm, above the top - at a distance of 2.5 - 3 cm. The bottom leaf is removed, but the petiole is left. The top sheet is cut to a third or half.
Cuttings lower the lower ends of 3-5 cm in a solution of heteroauxin or root, can withstand from several hours to days.
Planted in the shade in minitplichku in a mixture of peat and sand at an angle to a depth of 4-5 cm, deepening the lower kidney. The soil is moistened in time, the cuttings are sprayed, the leaves are constantly kept wet.
In 1,5 - 2 months the first roots form. Minify the card after this is gradually removed, first for a while, accustoming the plants to fresh air, then completely.
In winter, planting is covered with tree foliage or spruce branches.
The following spring, rooted cuttings are planted in shkolka. By the fall, a sprout develops from the lower bud, and a sprout from the upper bud may also appear. The plant can be transplanted to a permanent place in the autumn or spring of next year.
In this way, cuttings with one kidney can also be rooted, but by the autumn such cuttings form too weak roots and freeze out in the open field, so they should spend the winter in a cold greenhouse.
How to plant a tree peony? Instruction
- Landing pit. Cone-shaped, width - 70-75, and depth - 65-81 cm. It is better to dig a hole 18-35 days before planting.
- Drainage. It is recommended to make a 16-19 cm drainage layer of gravel, broken brick or sand at the bottom of the planting pit.
- Soil mix. On top of the drainage lay rotted manure. The soil mixture is prepared in equal parts of the earth (top layer), peat and humus + add 140-210 grams of superphosphate and 310-390 grams of bone meal or wood ash. If the earth is clay, then you still need to add 7-9 kg of river sand, and in the sandy soil 1-1.5 clay buckets.
- Depth of landing. The root collar is placed in the soil so that the renewal buds are at the level of the soil surface. The grafted specimens are planted so that the vaccination site is 9-14 cm below the ground surface.
Adjusting the depth of landing peony
- At a pH level below 6.5, add 100 grams of hydrated lime to the top-dressing layer, and if below 6.0, add 200 grams per bush.
Tree peony care after planting
The first spring is a key time in the life of a flower. From May to mid-June - the most favorable period for feeding.
- Pour the solution with complex mineral fertilizer (for example, “Kemira spring - summer”) + nitrogen (ammonium nitrate 40-50 g) into a circular well to accelerate the formation of the root system and intensive vegetation.
- In the first season of growth, foliar dressings are more effective. Sprinkle the bush three times: 1. After the beginning of the growth of shoots - 30-40 g of urea / 5 liters of water. 2. After 14-19 days, 30-40 g of urea (carbamide) and a tablet with trace elements / 5 liters of water. 3. After 2-3 weeks, two tablets / 5 l of water.
- If there is no rain, then water every 2-3 days for the first 15-19 days after planting. In the future, water the bush during drought better less often, but plentifully: 11-16 liters per bush. The next day, loosen the soil to provide oxygen to the roots.
- Preparing for the 1-2nd winter. In mid-October, seedlings need to cover 11-14 cm with a layer of peat and cover with a bucket. Straw, foliage or manure is not recommended. In the spring, the mulch is harvested, and next fall it is covered again.
What year will the tree peony bloom after planting?
A grafted sapling with normal development usually blooms on the 2-3rd year, and a rooted one on the 4-6th year.
Peony Spring Trimming
Prior to the beginning of the growing season (March - April), it is recommended to prune for a beautiful formation and extension of the life of the bush. To do this, cut off the shoots at the level of the first growth kidney from the top, and the weak shortened by 9-12 cm in height from the ground.
Attention! If it is found, do not cut off frozen shoots and wait for the end of May. If the flower does not recover, cut them to the first living bud, then it will begin to grow again.
Pruning tree peony in spring
Top dressing and fertilizers: subtleties and order
The best feeding for tree peony: wood ash, bone meal and mineral fertilizers with a high concentration of potassium and phosphorus, and low - nitrogen. Feeding is convenient to produce with irrigation.
Autumn is the best period for applying organic fertilizers. The bush can be compacted (rotted manure) - 3-5 kg, and then dig the soil 11-14 cm in depth. Fresh manure is not strongly recommended to apply, from contact with it the roots are affected by rot.
- Preventive. After the snow melts, pour the soil around the peony with potassium permanganate (2-3 grams per five liters of water - one bush) to prevent diseases.
- Nitrogen Potassium for growth. As soon as the snow has gone, it is better to deposit nitrogen and potash fertilizers - 1: 1. Spread on the surface of the earth at a distance from the rhizome of 16-21 cm to 16-21 grams of nitrogen (ammonium nitrate - 40-60 grams) and potassium (potassium salt - 16-21 grams).
You can replace 40-60 grams of nitrofoski or take like "Kemira spring / summer." Then dig the earth 9-11 cm deep and cover with a thin layer of compost. Together with water after a rain or watering of substance will get to roots.
- Potash phosphoric for powerful flowering. Initially, budding (12–16 days before flowering) is carried out with liquid fertilizing with potash (40–50 g) and phosphate fertilizers (20–30 g) - 2: 1.
Potassium and phosphorus provide abundant flowering. Additionally, you can pour 10 l of infusion of mullein (only bushes older than five years) or in it to dissolve mineral fertilizers.
- Bloom. During peony blooming or after it after 3-5 days, repeat potash-phosphorus top dressing.
- Nutrient oversupply should be avoided and measures should be taken when feeding.
- To improve nitrogen metabolism, it is desirable to conduct foliar feeding (spraying) with boric acid - 1 gram per 500 g of water every 15-20 days before flowering.
Summer: bloom, peony care after blooming and pruning
Tree peonies bloom in late May - early June (Midland, Moscow region). First non-terry, after 3-5 days - terry, and later for 1-2 weeks yellow flowering half-shrubs. In the middle of June, the middle varieties bloom, and from the end of the month to the beginning of July - late varieties.
The flowering period is 11-16 days, a little less in hot weather, and a little longer in cool weather.
RULES OF CUT TO BOUQUET
- Cut no more than half of the flowers to make it easier for the peony to recover.
- When cutting a flower on the remaining shoot, at least 2-3 leaves should remain on the bush.
- Council For more lush flowers, cut 25-30% of the buds formed at the “pea” stage.
For varieties with large flowers, make supports around the flower from reinforcement or stakes with a ring of wire. Now there are special bush holders on sale, for example:
Ready support for pions
_https: //www.obi.ru/opory-dlya-rastenii-i-kustoderzhateli/kustoderzhatel-pion-plastmassovyi-sbornyi-zelenyi/p/3728409. Copy the address and paste in a new tab.
Care after flowering: pruning
After flowering, the stem is trimmed two buds below the flowering bud. And also regularly weed out. Watering and fertilizing as recommended in these sections.
Pruning tree peony after flowering
Tree peony: care in the fall and preparation for winter
Autumn care of the tree peony is reduced to digging the circle of the trunk (60-80 cm in diameter) at a depth of 10-13 cm. From above you can remove the top layer and pour sand into which to plant small-bulbous flowers (anemone, kandyk, crocus, muskari, proleska, scilla) They bloom in early spring and decorate the wintering place with their flowers.
Transplantation and reproduction
For tree peony transplantation in autumn and reproduction, see the separate material at the bottom of the page.
Shelter for the winter tree peony
- It is necessary to tie a bush with a tape, cord or rope in mid-late October, but not tightly and carefully, so that the branches do not freeze to snow and in the spring do not break off.
- After the onset of stable subzero temperatures (November), cover the bush with spruce leaves, white (!) Sacking, agrofibre or lutrasil (leave air slots at the bottom).
Instead of a tree-tree hut, often a tree-like peony is covered for the winter with a cardboard box, plastic boxes or a barrel. If the branches rest on the bottom, it is better to cut them a bit, because they will freeze and they will have to be cut in the spring anyway.
Shelter shelter allows you to save peonies in the winter and often serves as protection not from frost, but from hares and birds, so as not to damage the kidneys.
- To increase the frost resistance of the flower due to the better maturation of the shoots at the end of September, it is possible to cut the leaves into 2/3 of the length.
- Even if the bush, which has bloomed in front of it for 2-3 years, will freeze the buds, there is no need to worry. In late May, such shoots will be cut to the first living bud, and then they will easily grow.
Pruning tree peonies: bush formation and rejuvenation
In general, flowers are distinguished by good tolerance of pruning and fast fouling with new shoots. Pruning a bush, you need to understand that it will bloom on last year's shoots.
Forming a bush
To form a bush, it is advised to trim lignified shoots at a height of 70-90 cm. Such a height contributes to the excellent development and flowering of the tree peony in our climate, and also makes it easier to cover for the winter. Although the shrub itself can grow up to 2-2.5 meters in the European part of the CIS.
For rejuvenation of the flower and awakening of accessory buds, it is recommended to cut the stalks of the tree peony every 10-20 years to the top axillary point (3-4 cm from ground level). This procedure contributes to more lush flowering and prolongs the life of the plant, up to a hundred or more years.
Diseases and pests
Tree peonies are very resistant plants, including pests and diseases. The greatest danger is gray rot, and the best remedy is prevention.
If damaged, treat plants with a fungicide. For example, potassium permanganate - 3 grams per 10 liters of water or copper sulfate - 60-70 grams per 10 liters of water.
For prevention, be sure to spray flowers in spring (mass regrowth of shoots), before and after flowering with a fungicide.
For example, copper sulphate (40 g per 10 liters of water or 4 g per m2), iodine solution (1 ml per 400 ml), potassium permanganate (1 g per 4 l) or infusion of onion peel (100 g pour 5 l of water and leave for 24 hours ).
Read more in the article:HOW TO FIGHT MUCH ROSE? Section - means and preparations.
Which is better to choose a sapling?
It is best if the tree sapling has 2-3 lignified escapes with unblown, rather large dark red glossy buds (resting state) 18-25 cm in height.
- The high cost of seedlings is explained by the fact that when dividing a bush, there are few delenok (2-5).
Most of them come from nurseries in China, Japan and Poland. Many experts believe that foreign planting material is less prepared for our climate and recommend buying Russian seedlings.
Russian tree peonies have high winter hardiness and are well developed in the Moscow region, North-West, in the Urals and in Siberia.
However, to buy them more chances from residents of Moscow and Moscow region, since many of them are grown in the Botanical Garden at Moscow University. A great merit in this belongs to Marianna Sergeyevna Uspenskaya.
- Обязательно изучите характеристики сорта: зимостойкость, приживаемость в вашем климате и внешние признаки (высота, сроки цветения, особенности цветка – махровость, оттенок и диаметр).
- Если у деленки с открытой корневой системой (без горшка) почки уже распустились, то её качество намного снижается.
- When buying a seedling without a pot, be sure to inspect the root system so that the roots rotted or broken as small as possible. And their length should ideally be equal to the height of the seedling.
- The larger the seedling, the longer it will take root in the new place.
- If there is a cylindrical succulent rhizome at the base of a woody shoot, then it is a graft of a tree-like peony on a grassy stock. (See vaccination propagation).
Important! Damage to the kidneys during transportation or planting causes a 1-2 year delay in flowering.
Planting and caring for tree peonies (briefly)
- Landing: from mid-August to late September.
- Bloom: April May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight, light partial shade.
- The soil: fertile loam.
- Watering: twice a month, 6-7 liters of water for each bush, in strong heat - more frequent watering, since August watering is gradually stopped.
- Top dressing: at the beginning of the growing season - with nitrogen fertilizer, in the period of budding - with potash-phosphorus, during the flowering period - with the full complex.
- Trimming: annually in spring.
- Reproduction: dividing the bush, cuttings, layering, grafting.
- Pests: aphid caterpillars.
- Diseases: gray rot, brown spot, root rot.
Tree peonies description
The plant is a deciduous shrub, reaching a height of one and a half or two meters. Stems - light brown, thick, erect. They do not die off every autumn, like the stalks of a grassy peony, but they grow every year, gradually turning the plant into a hemispherical shrub. The leaves of the tree peony are openwork, twice pinnate, ornamental. The flowers are very large - from 12 cm in diameter to 20 cm, or even more - are located at the ends of the shoots. They are simple, semi-double, double, different colors - yellow, white, pink, purple, crimson, even two-tone. The older the bush becomes, the more flowers bloom on it. A tree-like peony begins to bloom a fortnight earlier than the grassy one and blooms for two or three weeks. Tree peonies are cold-resistant.
Types and varieties of tree peonies
The basis of all cultivated varieties of tree peonies are several natural species: the Lemoine peony, as well as the yellow peony, the Delaware peony, and the Potanin peony belonging to the semi-shrub peony group. Among the registered tree peony varieties, most of them grow in China. The varieties of peonies are divided into three groups:
- – Sino-European - varieties with terry, large, heavy and from this drooping flowers. Color - from pale pink to fuchsia,
- – Japanese varieties - their flowers are not so large, light, hovering above the bush,
- – Hybrids peony yellow and peony Delaavey - the most popular variety group with yellow flowers.
Several tree peony sorts popular with gardeners:
- – Qiao Sisters - two-color rose-like inflorescences: one half is dark red, the second is white and cream, flower diameter is 16 cm,
- – Sapphire - pale pink flowers with a dark crimson middle up to 18 cm in diameter, which can be up to fifty at a time on a bush,
- – Coral altar - bicolor crown flowers of both salmon and white shades with a diameter of up to 20 cm,
- – Green jade - Flowers in the form of a bud of light green color make an indelible impression with their originality.
How to plant a tree peony.
Tree peony is planted in autumn, from mid-August to late September. The process of planting any flower precedes the choice of the place where it will grow. In the case of tree peonies, preference is given to solar areas located at a certain elevation and away from buildings and large trees so that the pion does not have to be in their shadow. The soil must be loamy, so clay, humus, peat and soddy soil will have to be introduced into the sandy soil. Clay soil needs to be improved with sand and organic fertilizers. These are very important moments, since the life span of a plant depends on them, and tree-like peonies are able to grow in one place for up to one hundred years.
Planting tree peonies in autumn.
In the case of low groundwater occurrence, a pit under a pion is dug in the form of a cone, with a diameter of 70 cm at the surface and the same depth. A layer of broken brick, gravel or sand 25-30 cm thick is placed at the bottom of the pit. If the soil is acidic, 200-300 g of bone meal or lime are brought in, then the soil is poured over with a cone, a plant is placed on it and the water is poured in. peony. After the water is absorbed into the soil, the pit is covered with earth so that the root neck is level with the surface. If you plant several copies, place seedlings of tree peony no closer than 1.5-2 m from each other.
Growing tree peonies from seeds.
A plant grown from seeds, under a successful set of circumstances, can bloom only for 5-6 years after planting, besides, the seeds of the tree peony due to the underdevelopment of the embryo need to be stratified, and during long-term storage they generally do not germinate. Stratification is carried out in two stages: first warm, then cold. But even the implementation of these difficult manipulations will not guarantee that your efforts will be crowned with success.
Care for tree peonies.
If you do not know how to care for tree-like peonies, take care of them like grassy ones: water with the same frequency and intensity, loosen the soil after watering, remove weeds - nothing complicated. Recall: twice a month, pour 6-7 liters of water under each bush, water more often in strong heat, and gradually reduce watering in August until it stops completely. After watering, loosen the soil around the bush within a half-meter radius, but not deeper than 5 cm, remove, if there is, weeds and slightly mutilate the soil around the bush with humus.
Top dressing of tree peonies.
You need to know that tree peonies are champions in the consumption of potassium and nitrogen among flowering plants. At the beginning of the growing season they require nitrogen fertilization, during the budding period and until the end of the growing season they need a large amount of potassium and phosphorus, and during the flowering period, nitrogen must be added to the potassium and phosphorus again. Just remember that it is better to underfed the plant with nitrogen, than to overdose this element to develop a predisposition to the disease of gray mold. Before fertilizing the soil is watered abundantly: it will save peony roots from burns.
Pruning tree peonies.
Every spring, even before the beginning of the growing season, trim the peony bushes: remove the dried shoots, shorten the old shoots to 10 cm. Chinese flower growers cut the peon bushes almost to the soil surface every twenty years to rejuvenate the plants by awakening the adventitious buds at the base of the shoots. And we recommend cutting the shoots to the top axillary point so that your peony will bloom more abundantly next year. On how you trim a bush peony tree, pruning depends on the duration of its life. Usually, peonies live for a hundred years, or even more: in China, protected by law and specialists, five hundred year old specimens of tree peonies safely grow.
Transplantation of tree peonies.
Tree pion transfers a very painful transplant, sometimes strong plants, after changing their location, are sick and languish for several years and cannot recover in any way. When you transplant, try to injure the plant's root system as little as possible - dig it out with a clod of earth, which you then gently wash with a stream of water. Inspect the roots, remove the diseased, shorten too long, process the cuts with one-percent solution of potassium permanganate and sprinkle with crushed coal. If you want to propagate a peony, divide the shrub into delenki by stretching the parts to the sides at the root collar. If you had to use surgery, process the slices. Each division, which must have several replacement buds and roots, before planting, immerse it in a clay mash for half an hour.
Breeding pion tree cuttings.
The cuttings for this breeding method are needed half-lignified, and they are cut in the second half of June: the kidney is separated from the leaf plate and part of the escape wood. The sheet is cut in half, cuttings stuck into containers with a mixture of sand and peat to a depth of 1.5 cm, covered with glass or film, regularly watered and sprayed. In late September, they are seated in personalized pots and kept until spring in a greenhouse. When peonies start to grow, they can be planted in open ground.
Reproduction of tree peonies by layering.
The duration of the breeding process in this way is two years. In May, before flowering, select developed shoots, carefully bend them to the ground, after making an incision on the side facing the soil, treating it with a growth substance and inserting a peg into it, and dig in 8-10 cm of soil removal. Moisturize the soil over by cuttings when you water a peony. In September, when the roots appear, the shoot is separated from the bush and planted in the ground at a permanent place. You can multiply the peony and air layering: make an incision on the shoot, wrap it with wet moss, and then with a film, which is tightly fixed. The roots will appear by the end of the summer. The method is as simple as ineffective.
Propagation of tree peonies by grafting.
This is the most common and most reliable method of industrial reproduction of pions. But it can be used in a private garden. The grafting is carried out on grassy peony roots: in early August, cuttings with two buds of tree peony are prepared, which need to be propagated, the lower part of the stem is ground under a wedge and tightly inserted into the slot wedge specially made in the wedge shape. The entry of the cutting in the root tightly wraps the film. Grafted peonies are placed in a box with wet sawdust and stored in the shade. A month later, rooted cuttings are planted in a container so that the lower eye is immersed in the soil for 5-7 cm, and placed in a greenhouse. Grown grafted peony and a half to two years.
Pests and diseases of tree peony
Tree peonies are not painful, but sometimes health problems occur with them. Particularly susceptible to diseases weakened transplant and old bushes. The most dangerous is gray rot, which can be controlled by spraying plants with a solution of potassium permanganate at the rate of 3 g per 10 liters of water. You can apply a spray of six-seven percent solution of copper sulfate. But decaying stems must be removed and burned. Sometimes tree pions are sick with brown spot. Affected leaves must be removed and burned so that the infection does not spread to other plants, and the bush should be sprayed with a one-percent solution of Bordeaux liquid.
Tree peony has faded - what to do?
As soon as the peony blossoms are complete, cut off the withered shoots to the top axillary point, as they will die off anyway. In the autumn, before the dormant period, feed the plants: add 300 g of wood ash and 200 g of bone meal under each bush, then carefully soil the soil.
Shelter treelike peony for the winter.
Despite the fact that tree peonies are cold-resistant and tolerate our winters quite well, professional flower growers advise to cover them for the winter: the frost is not so terrible as the early spring thaws, during which peony buds that are covered with snow or covering material can wake up, but As a rule, the frosts following the thaw can ruin a plant that has begun to grow. Therefore, in October, tie the shoots, grind the tree trunk with peat, and with the onset of cold weather, cover the plant by building a bower box over it, foliage, a thick layer of crushed bark, or just bags of jute, so that the wintering of the tree peony can proceed normally.
Tree peony features
Its height can reach 1.5-2 m in height, it has upright powerful shoots that grow with each passing year. Attention is attracted not only by his delightful flowers of various shades, but also by carved, as if openwork, feather-like leaves. Multi-petal buds crown strong stems that can be 14 to 23 cm in diameter. The tree-like peony is striking in its color range, depending on the variety, the flowers can be snow-white, pink, scarlet, rich fuchsia, yellow, gently mauve, blue (Blue Sapphire ) and even light green (Green Jade). Pay attention to the size of the flower itself, for example, the first pink flower in the photo below has a diameter of just the indicated 23 cm (and the second one is even bigger).
Sizes of flowers, photo:
The color of the petals may also have a gradient - a smooth transition from one color to another. The texture of the buds is also diverse: terry, semi-double, normal smooth. A remarkable feature of the tree is an increase in the number of flowers every year. Its bloom time begins 10-14 days earlier than that of its relative, the usual peony. His cold tolerance is higher, he has a more stable “immunity” than his herbal counterpart.
Gradient color of flower petals, photo:
The bush is characterized by abundant flowering, the number of blossoming buds at the same time can reach up to 40-50 pieces. Most often, the duration of the blooming phase of each flower is 8-10 days, but even just a bush, generously covered with green foliage, is in itself able to decorate any summer cottage or flower bed.
Foliage tree peony photo:
Because of its large size, it is planted separately from other flowers, or at a certain distance from the rest of the garden representatives. As an addition to other inhabitants of the garden, it also looks very harmonious, with its individuality, it is appropriate to emphasize the hedge, arch, the area around the gazebo, garden bench or the entrance to the house.
What is the difference between tree peony and grass pion?
The first visual difference is more powerful, woody shoots with characteristic leaves. In fact - it is a shrub. In the grassy, closer to the cold weather, the stems and shoots die off, and the tree only increases them, each year turning into a spherical shrub that can reach 2 meters in height. In the fall, he naturally sheds leaves, but the shoots remain, become strong, as if woody.
Another point, on the tree representative, it is not necessary to periodically cut the buds to stimulate the subsequent flowering and distribution of the vital forces of the plant. This method works well only in the case of its grassy "relative". The tree in its "behavior" is similar to cold-resistant garden roses - it tolerates the winter well, but in especially severe frosts (in the northern regions of Russia) it is better to protect it with a special covering material. Also for these purposes, you can also use lapnik.
If your peony is comfortable at the site, you do everything competently and in a timely manner, then its flowering period will last about 3-4 weeks. Usually it blooms before grassy fellow for a half to two weeks. Weather conditions and temperature background in the region significantly affect this factor. For example, in central Russia they bloom in the first weeks of a calendar summer. Without transplanting, in one place, it can grow for decades. For example, the bushes that you can see in the photos below are already 20-30 years old. There are cases when the number of flowers on one bush reached 100 pieces!
Another significant nuance (and difference) is the fact that they bloom only in the 4th or 5th year from the time of planting in open ground. At first, one flower appears at the end of a straight-growing shoot, and then, gradually, over time, the bush picks up color, builds up shoots, and abundantly becomes covered with buds. The first years it may even seem to you that the bush has stopped growing, but this is normal for this species; for the first five years, it generally adds very slowly in volume and growth. The time difference in the "ripening" of the bush is another difference.
Briefly summarize the main difference of what distinguishes the tree from the grass, can be such parameters:
- bush height
- the size of the flower itself (its diameter),
- nuances, differences in care,
- hardness escape
Consider the natural slow growth of this flower, the process of growing shoots occurs gradually and not as quickly as we would like. In order for the bush to give flowers, it must grow to at least 60 cm in height.
Why does not bloom tree peony?
This question can very often be seen on thematic flower forums or various gardening groups on social networks. The answer is predictable - improper care, poorly chosen landing site, as well as illiterate soil preparation for it (no drainage, failure to properly embed the flower in the soil). About these nuances will be discussed below. The bush itself can be quite old or, on the contrary, young, not yet reached the stage of the appearance of flowers (as we remember, more than one year must pass in order for the tree-like peony to give color).
Place for bushes should be bright and spacious, the soil - fertile, friable, alkaline.
This plant does not like transplant very much - you should know about it. If it happens that for some reason the transplant is still required, then all actions should be carried out very carefully. Извлекать куст из почвы нужно с земляным комом, бдительно следить, чтобы не повредились корни. Однако будьте готовы к тому, что цветок после этого мероприятия будет очень долго приходить в себя, болеть и адаптироваться на новом месте 2 или даже 3 года.
Правильный полив тоже оказывает большое влияние на цветение. It is necessary to water abundantly and generously at a time, but this should not be done often! Water stagnation is dangerous for it, so if you have clay soil in the area, provide your pet with quality drainage before planting (lay a drainage layer in the hole under the flower). It develops better and grows in open sunny places, but in the penumbra the flowers retain their freshness and duration of flowering longer.
Summarizing the main reasons why the tree peony does not bloom:
- Insufficient or, conversely, excessive penetration of the bush into the soil during planting.
- Overworking with nitrogenous fertilizers.
- Excessive enthusiasm or, conversely, insufficient provision of feedings (this flower does not need a large number of auxiliary additives).
- Damage to the bush by frost or, conversely, abnormal heat. Diseases should also not be written off. When planting a flower, always consider the predisposition of the selected variety to the temperature characteristics of the weather in your region. For example, when living in warm regions, choose early flowering varieties.
- Banal lack of sunlight can also be the reason why the bush does not bloom.
- Age - young bushes bloom at 4 or 5 years of life, as already mentioned above.
- Too close distance between plants - he likes space.
- Transplanting (sometimes repeated) or the separation of the rhizome can also be due to the lack of flowers.
- Pruning shoots. Unknowingly, some gardeners prune shoots with the onset of autumn. Sometimes even before the foliage began to change color (darken) or fall off.
- Excessive dryness or, conversely, excessive moisture in the soil. Remember that in between watering the ground should have time to dry.
Many gardeners would like the flower to combine its own beauty along with the unpretentiousness of the grassy fellow. Breeders are not inactive and are constantly trying to bring new hybrids, they are called ITO-peonies (peonies of the new generation) - but that's another story.
Separately growing bush (he needs space), photo:
Important - the choice of seedlings
Pay attention to planting material - its root system is open or closed. When buying at a corresponding point of sale, the sapling may already have special packaging (for example, a plastic bag on top), and its roots, on the contrary, may be bare or staying in a bag with a substrate. These figures tell us that this is a peony with an open root system. But if the plant is sold in a finished pot and even has (sometimes) buds, then this is a flower with a closed root system.
Be sure to look at whether the seedling is grafted or it has its own roots. If there is a graft, the roots are dark and thick. In diameter, they can reach 4-5 cm and in appearance are somewhat similar to carrots. In such representatives, flowers may appear in the first year of life after planting. Such samples should be purchased in the respective nurseries, under the guidance of competent professional gardeners - and nothing else.
If you got a seedling obtained from the layers, then the roots will be light, thin and long. After planting, you can see flowers 4 years later (approximately). There is nothing new in the “scheme” for obtaining cuttings: a healthy and strong escape with buds bends down to the ground, pinned, covered with soil. After a certain time, the roots sprout from the buds, the shoot is trimmed and divided into several fragments with roots.
When purchasing such a sapling obtained from a layer, pay attention so that its roots are not exposed, and the plant itself has at least 5 capable buds. The length of this seedling must be at least 25 cm!
Tree peony - planting and care in the open field
In order for a beautifully flowering bush to develop well, to be strong and healthy, the very first thing is to choose a comfortable time and place for its planting. The most favorable period for this is considered the end of summer / beginning of autumn. If possible, determine for it an exalted place illuminated by the rays of the sun. Thick trees growing nearby or various buildings will create a thick shadow - and this is unacceptable for any peony. Light shading is the most optimal place. Winds and drafts are also highly undesirable. What sways planting in the spring, it is not recommended because of the difficult adaptation of the plant, because during this period growth and flowering is activated.
Loams are the ideal soil for this flower, if sandy soil prevails on your site, then in advance add turf, clay, peat, humus to it. Organic fertilizers and clean river sand can significantly improve the composition of the earth for the harmonious development of peony. He does not like sour soil either, so in advance “deoxidize” it by adding lime. Plant a flower where there is no low groundwater flow, but if there is no other possibility, then the pit needs to be made quite deep for it (about 70-80 cm, the diameter is similar). Lay a layer of drainage on the bottom of the recess, about 30-35 cm, crushed stone or gravel of the small fraction is perfect for this business. In extreme cases, a 30 cm layer of river sand can also be used.
Tree peony - how to plant? There is nothing difficult here: build a small mound out of the ground in a hole, put a bush on it, gently straighten the roots, pour water generously. After moisture is absorbed into the soil, sprinkle the seedling in such a way that its root collar is flush with the soil surface.
If you plant several bushes at once, do not forget about the distance between them, it should be at least two meters of one plant from another!
The so-called “fastidiousness” consists in the search for the golden mean - the creation of optimal and harmonious conditions. The hot sun is harmful, but a thick shadow is unacceptable, he loves water, but waterlogging is fraught with root rotting, and free space is necessary for the flower to grow and become a luxuriant lush shrub. The soil is important, because it is the food of the plant, so it must be fertile and loose, drained. In principle, in this task there is nothing difficult for an enthusiastic gardener, since every green inhabitant requires attention, but also rewards accordingly - with beauty and an awareness of success, which still happened, raised, blossoms and smells!
Tree peony planting and care - add-ons (optional):
- Some gardeners say that the planting pit should first “ripen”. I have already written above about soil dilution with fertilizers and additives, but according to some experienced gardeners, this pit should be prepared a month before planting. That is, make all the supplements in advance, and only then bury the seedling in the pit.
- When the seedling is buried in the ground, its lowest kidney should already be introduced into the soil by about 15 cm. Some gardeners recommend placing such a “pie” in advance at the bottom of the pit: a layer of humus, a thin layer of earth, add complex top dressing on it, sprinkle it evenly 1 A tablespoon (with a slide) of copper sulfate. For greater reliability, you can mix a little lime with the ground (to reduce the pH).
- If the seedling fell into your hands in late autumn or winter, then “lower it” until the end of next summer. To do this, take a small pot with a suitable dredger, dig a bush into it, place it in a cool, but lighted room. For all this period, the flower will strengthen the roots, and in the last weeks of August or the first two weeks of September you will be able to plant it for permanent residence in the open ground.
Listen to these additions or plant a plant without any special tricks - you choose. As practice shows, with proper compliance with all requirements, in both cases you will receive a positive result.
How to care for a tree peony?
Basic care for him, in principle, is the same as for the grassy. From time to time you should loosen the soil, remove the weeds, fertilize it. If your bush boasts an abundance of flowers and shoots, be sure to create a support for it so that the branches will not break under the weight of the flowers.
One bush requires about 6-8 liters of water, such abundant watering should be carried out at least 2 times a month. At the same time, consider possible precipitation! During the summer heat it can be done more often - the state of the soil and the flower itself will tell you. From about August, water volumes during irrigation should be gradually reduced to complete exclusion. Pushing the ground around the bush is recommended a couple of days after watering, then when the top layer of the earth dries out. When loosening, the depth of immersion of a garden tool into the soil should be no more than 5 cm. It is possible to mulch with humus, but its layer should not be too thick.
Peony loves nitrogen and potassium, it must be made regularly. Nitrogen supplements are relevant at the very beginning of the growing season, and potash-phosphorus supplements will be relevant from the moment when the peony begins to form flower buds until the very end of the growing season. When the bush begins to give flowers, in addition to its favorite potassium and phosphorus, you can add a little nitrogen. However, it should be remembered that an overabundance of this component can ruin it, therefore, to make nitrogen in this period or not - you choose. Sometimes it is better not to finish it than to perebdet - this is just such a case in relation to nitrogen fertilizer. Do not forget to moisturize the ground abundantly before each application of additional fertilizing - this will create a protective background for the root system of the flower.
While your peony is at a young age, then the first 2.5-3 years, fertilizers are applied using the foliar method: about 35-40 g of mineral additives are diluted in a bucket of water (10 liters) and irrigated with a spray gun after each watering. Thus, the plant receives "food" through foliage and shoots. Adult representatives are fed three times a year: in the spring, during the emergence of new shoots, during the swelling of the buds, after the bush finally fades.
As mentioned above, the tree peony is cold-resistant, but the purchased specimens need mandatory protection in winter. It will be better if for the first couple of years you will cover them for the winter with lutrasil, spanbond, burlap or lapnik. Additionally, on top you can make a "hat" of snow. About the cultivation and protection (even adults) of peonies in cold regions was mentioned above.
Tree Peony Diseases
This flower is considered quite persistent and strong in terms of disease resistance. However, it can be visited by parasites and diseases. The main problem is illiterate care, and old or weak transplanted shrubs are the first to enter the risk zone.
The main diseases and methods of dealing with them:
- The most dangerous and insidious enemy is gray rot (aka Botritis). This fungal disease is activated when the soil is too wet and too little sun (for example, when it is rainy summer). A grayish raid appears on the leaves - if you notice this, immediately cut off the suspicious fragments and burn them somewhere far away from the site. Another sign of this disease is softening and sharp withering of young and strong shoots. It is treated with irrigation with potassium permanganate (4 g per 10 l of water) and 7% copper sulfate solution (copper sulphate), also diluted with water. Irrigation should not only ground part of the bush, but the soil around it, and even mulch.
- Brown spotting - the same action. Irrigation with a low-carbonate solution of potassium permanganate (4 g per 10 l of water) serves as a preventive measure against it. Affected leaves also require immediate removal and destruction, and the bush itself (the ground part) is treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid.
- Rust (some gardeners claim that it is synonymous with brown spot) very quickly affects the bush, it even happens that the whole plant is destroyed within 24 hours. First, brown-purple spots appear on the leaves, and then the foliage curls sharply and dries out at the same time. Radical treatment is the removal of all affected parts of the shrub and their destruction. In the case of rust, prevention works well: timely loosening the soil to ensure fresh air (removing weeds and thinning other, nearby growing plants). In early spring, before the leaves appear on the shoots, or in late autumn, when they all fall off, the ground under the bush and around it must be treated with a solution of nitrafen diluted in water, 200 g per 1 bucket of water will be sufficient.
- Ring-shaped mosaic of foliage is another viral disease that is manifested by the appearance of stripes and “rings” on the leaves. These lesions have a yellowish or light green tint, as practice shows, the ring-shaped mosaic does not particularly affect flowering and development of the bush, but the appearance of the foliage spoils. The strips dry up over time and the sheet cracks. Contact fungicide "Maxim" copes well with this disease, it should be diluted as indicated on the package.
By the way, diseases are often transmitted not only through contaminated planting material or soil, but also through garden tools. Insects, even ordinary ants, can carry a fungus or a virus to healthy bushes.
This garden aristocrat - tree peony, growing and care, as well as approach to itself, oddly enough, requires a completely unpretentious and does not have special requests. This exquisite plant harmoniously combines the qualities of a decorative flower and shrub. The long-liver will delight you and your loved ones with its beauty for so many years and even decades.
Interesting fact for residents and guests of Moscow
In the capital of Russia, the oldest botanical garden, founded in 1706 by Peter I, is known as the Pharmaceutical Garden. So, tree peonies were planted in it as early as the 19th century, and they still bloom there. Now they are about 140-160 cm in height.
The botanical garden (metro station Prospect Mira ”) has many greenhouses with exotic and rare plants open to the public. And also there is a site and profile in instagramme, where you can find out the time and cost of excursions. In addition, from mid-April until the end of autumn there is a plant shop there.
ADDITION TO ARTICLE:
In this manual on planting and caring for tree peonies, many of the recommendations are coordinated with the article from the “Household Farm” supplement from the Selskaya Novaya magazine. The author of the article is M. S. Uspenskaya, the number was signed for publication on October 23, 1991. As well as the book "Peonies" by Marianna Sergeyevna.
Marianna Sergeyevna Uspenskaya is familiar to every person who is interested in peonies. He is a true guru and a man of legend, Ph.D. in Biological Sciences (1982), senior researcher (1967) of the Botanical Garden at Moscow State University and author of many varieties.
By the way, on the Internet, 95% of the information on the agrotechnology of tree peonies is a processing of the works of Marianna Sergeyevna. However, most of them resemble the game "spoiled phone" and contain conflicting information. Our editorial board stores the original of this issue of the journal and the book, i.e. we studied the source.
Finally, a video with the participation of the legendary Marianna Sergeyevna and her advice live.
We wish your flowers to be healthy and bloom profusely every year!
How to save a tree peony before planting in the fall
Do not refuse to buy seedlings with an open root system in the spring or even in winter. For their preservation until the autumn planting apply intermediate storage in a container. Take the capacity of 5 liters, make holes for water flow. The soil requires a neutral reaction, put a drainage layer on the bottom. Plant seedlings and store in a cool room (balcony, loggia, cellar). Occasionally water, not letting the earthen coma dry out.
- The purpose of intermediate planting is the possibility of increasing the suction roots, but the seedling should not bloom. If this happens, when the height of the shoots reaches 15-20 cm, the container should be moved to a lighter, but still cool place.
When leaflets appear, treat with a preparation that improves the photosynthesis process so that the plant “breathes” (Appin, Zircon, Ferovit). In the spring you can take to the garden, placing in a secluded corner under the scattered shade of trees or prikopat in partial shade (soil mulch peat). In the fall, transplant bushes to a permanent growth site.
Choosing a place in the garden for planting tree peony
Choose a sunny place for landing, but shading is desirable in the midday hours (let the sun look at the site in the morning and evening hours). Requires protection from drafts and strong gusts of wind. Do not plant near shrubs or trees.
Damp, flooded areas are contraindicated. If groundwater is near to the ground, provide good drainage or plant on a high bed.
The soil requires friable, water and breathable, preferably alkaline reaction. If the soil is clay, dilute with coarse sand and ash. In any case, a couple of weeks before planting digging, make a small amount of humus and dolomite flour.
Watering and loosening the soil
Весной и перед началом цветения поливайте обильно, но не допускайте переувлажнения, также хорошо поливайте в период длительной засухи. Желательно поливать теплой отстоянной водой (можно собирать дождевую воду в бочке в саду или наливать туда для подогрева водопроводную воду). После окончания цветения полив сокращают, а к августу прекращают полностью – древесина должна вызреть перед наступлением холодов.
Периодически проводите рыхления почвы, углубляясь на 3-5 см.
Подкормки и профилактика болезней
Если длительно стоит дождливая или пасмурная погода, в целях профилактик появления гнили проведите обработку раствором медного купороса или бордосской жидкостью.
- Если древовидный пион растет в плодородной почве, подкормки можно начать с 3-го года роста. It is not advisable to add organic matter, also control the introduction of a fraction of nitrogen (from its overabundance, the plant's resistance to diseases decreases).
- Introduce the first top dressing in early spring with a snow melt (in the near-circle circle, sprinkle 2 tsp of potassium and nitrogen).
- The second feeding is made in the period of budding (half a cup of phosphorus, 1 tsp of potassium, 2 tsp of nitrogen).
- At the end of flowering feed the last time for the season (20 g of phosphorus, 12 g of potassium).
Annually, the near-stem circle is mulched with humus or compost (approximately 1 bucket for each bush).
The bush does not need forming for pruning.
In early spring, you can shorten weak shoots, leaving a length of 10-20 cm. Note that flowering give shoots of last year. If you notice frozen kidneys, do not rush to remove them. Wait until the end of May - they can recover. If this does not happen, prune to the first living kidney. In graft plants, over time, basal shoots may form from the stock - remove it.
Anti-aging pruning is carried out every 10-15 years. All shoots must be cut under the stump.
When the tree peony blooms
Tree peony growing and care
The tree peony begins to bloom in June, and only some varieties bloom in May. The flowering period lasts about 15 days.
The grafted tree peony blooms on the 2nd year after planting, the rooted peony blooms after 3-5 years. The number of inflorescences increases annually, the flowering season is revealed in all its glory in the 3-4th year. This is especially true for varieties with terry and "fantasy" inflorescences.
How to cover tree peonies for the winter
Adult tree peonies are cold-resistant enough - they are not afraid of average frosts of up to -20 ° C. However, in the conditions of the Moscow region and the middle zone, a good shelter for the tree peony will be required for a safe wintering. A warm damp autumn also adversely affects future wintering. Under such conditions, the bush continues to grow and may not have time to "fall asleep" before the onset of cold weather. In this regard, in the north-western regions and the conditions of the middle band should prepare the plant for wintering:
- Stop watering in advance (starting in August),
- If the end of summer-autumn is rainy, it is better to organize a shed to protect the bushes from excessive dampness,
- Deeply loosen the soil (be careful not to damage the root system), stick the tree trunk with humus or peat (1 bush of mulch for each bush),
- Cut leaves: in early October, shorten them by 2/3. This measure contributes to the successful maturation of the shoots of the current year (it is on them that the buds will be laid in the next season) and will increase the frost resistance of the plant.
- Build a tripod out of sticks: bury the ends in the ground, fasten the tops of the wire, cover the bushes with any covering material (canvas, spanbond). It is important to provide the plant with access to fresh air, so in the basal space do not tie spunbond, even if you cover without a tripod. You can use lapnik for shelter.
Young plants zamulchuyte humus, fallen leaves or straw, poured around the trunk of a mound. As mulch should not use pine needles - acidification of the soil is possible. Also use additional covering material.
In early spring, as soon as the snow melts, remove the mulch and shelter along with the snow cover to avoid rotting.
When and how to replant tree peonies
How to transplant a tree peony
Tree peonies do not like being disturbed by transplants. Without this procedure, they are excellent for 10-15 years. To ensure that everything goes well, it is advisable to do this at the end of the season (from the 20th of August to the end of September, 30-40 days before the onset of frost in your region). Permissible transplant in early spring before bud break.
More specific guidelines:
- For the Urals, Siberia: August 20 - September 15-20,
- Central Russia, Moscow Region, North-West: August 25-September 25,
- South of Russia, Ukraine - throughout September.
The deadline is the end of September, until the suction roots have formed.
The root system of the plant penetrates into the depth of 80-90 cm, while the roots are very tender. Tie the branches of the bush so that they do not interfere. At a distance of about half a meter to the depth of the spade bayonet, dig in the bush, it is better to do this with forks. Swing the plant and remove it with the earthy ball. Rinse the roots gently under a gentle stream of warm water.
Cut off the old, sick, rotten roots; treat the cut sections with a solution of potassium permanganate (10 g of powder per 1 l of water). Moisten the roots in a solution with a growth stimulant, land (similarly as for seedlings). For the winter, build a shelter. The following year, most of the shoots can be dried, the leaves are small and oppressed. The main thing is to be alive upper buds of shoots. Water well, feed regularly - the tree peony adapts, it will grow.
Growing tree peony from seeds
Peony seeds ready for planting photo
Growing a tree peony from seeds is quite time-consuming and lengthy process, but you can get a large number of young seedlings. Remember: you need to sow a pion only in the ground; at home, seedlings are not viable and soon die.
Sowing in the winter
Seeds are harvested as soon as the seed boxes begin to open. It should be dried for 3-4 days. Then sow in the ground to a depth of 5-6 cm at a distance of 25-30 cm. Sow the crop before the start of frosts, be sure to cover the bed for the winter with spandbond or lapnik, and remove the shelter in spring.
Collect the seeds without waiting for the seed boxes to open. Remove from the seed box, place in moist peat and store at 5-8 ° C. You can do the same with purchased seeds, storing them in peat in the vegetable section of the refrigerator until the time of sowing.
Scarification of tree peony seeds photo
Dry purchased seeds need to be scarified before stratification, that is, to break the shell with a file. If this is not done, they can sprout two years. Sow the prepared seeds in open ground in May, deepening by 4-5 cm and leaving a distance of 25-30 cm between them. After a while, shoots will appear.
How to care for seedlings
Water as the soil dries, feed the urea solution a couple of times during the season (40-50 g of fertilizer per 10 l of water, consumption per 1 m²). Soil the surface of the soil with peat, destroy weeds.
Shoots of tree peony from seeds photo
Over the summer, one leaf will grow about 4-6 cm in height. For the winter, cover the seedlings with dry leaves, spruce branches or lutrasil. After wintering, do not touch the seedlings, let them grow in the same place. Only when the peonies are stronger, and this may even be next season, they can be transplanted to a permanent place in late summer - early autumn. Do not rush to transplant, the later it is done, the better: poorly developed seedlings may not survive the transplant. Wait until they reach a height of 30-40 cm and will have 2-3 developed shoots. Peonies will bloom from seed no earlier than 4-5 years.
The division of the bush, applicable to plants aged 5-6 years
Reproduction of tree peony by dividing the bush photo
The best time for the procedure is the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. Dig out and carefully divide the bush; be sure to treat the cut sections with a fungicide. Each delenka should contain 2-3 buds of growth and roots 10-20 cm long.
Grafting on a grass peony root
Tree peony grafts photo
In the conditions of the middle lane, this is done in August.
The stock is part of the root of a herbaceous plant 10–15 cm long. The graft is cuttings cut into semi-woody shoots of the current year. Well, if the thickness of the rootstock and scion will be the same. Vaccinate or rotape is done (with a significantly larger thickness of the scion, only this method is used).
Roots for rootstock need to dig for 2-3 weeks and stored in a cool place.
Each stalk should have 1-2 buds (spend a cut above the top at a distance of 2-3 cm, below the bottom 3-4 cm, remove the leaves). Use isopropyl alcohol to sterilize the instrument. You will need a very sharp knife and sharp garden shears.
Grafting a tree peony on a grassy root how to make
Make a cross-section at the root, and if the root diameter is larger than the cutting, a wedge-shaped cut is needed. Cut the cutting from both sides to the wedge (it is advisable to do this under water - this will not block the porous fabric). Then insert into the cut.
Inoculation in tree of peony on the root of grassy photo
Wrap a special tape for grafting on top (if using ordinary electrical tape, turn the adhesive side out), you need to grab the cross-section of the root. Top should be smeared with garden pitch.
How to plant a tree peony on the root of a grassy peony
At the root and handle, make cuts (they should be smooth) at a slight angle, align and fasten in the same way.
Inoculation of tree peony
What to do with grafted seedlings
What to do with grafted seedlings of tree peony photo
It is possible to plant grafted plants in a greenhouse for 3-4 weeks; when planting, the graft should be above the soil level. Water regularly.
Another (more preferred) method: the grafted material is placed in boxes, shifted with moss or sawdust, covered with plastic bags and kept in the basement for the same time.
Grafted tree peony ready for landing on a permanent place photo
Successfully grafted plants are transplanted into the open ground, placing at an angle. For the winter, cover with a layer of straw, which must be cleaned in the spring. Growing the cuttings until autumn, in the fall transplanted to a permanent place of growth.
Graft peony tree for the second year of life photo
Difficulties and mistakes in the care
Consider problem situations and recommendations from experienced gardeners.
- Tree peony does not bloom (grows 7 years, its height is 50 cm).
There may be several reasons. Improper planting: if the soil is too heavy, the roots go deep (access of oxygen and nutrients to them is inadequate). Do a transplant. The freezing of flower buds: carefully cover the bushes for the winter. Soil of acid reaction: tree peonies grow better on alkaline reaction soils. When planting under the digging contribute dolomite flour, garden lime.
- It grows in a sunny area, but the growth of tree peony is small (over 2 years it has reached only 15 cm).
Most likely, you have greatly sunk the plant when planting.
- Tree peony grows 3 years, successfully blooms, but the height is no more than half a meter.
The annual increase is small. Especially from the grafted seedlings - the plant only moves to its own roots.
- The bush grew in a shady place, and after transplanting to a sunny site and lush flowering its leaves became covered with brown spots.
This is botris (gray rot). About the methods of struggle mentioned earlier.
- Bushes 5 years old, in February, the buds were small, black. If tree peonies were not covered for the winter, will they die?
Young plants must be covered for the winter. If the bushes bloomed in the previous season, you should not worry - they will be gone before May. Then inspect the shrub and prune to the first living bud. In case of severe frosting, do a full pruning under the root (this applies to adult plants).
Tree peonies in landscape design
Tree peony care and cultivation in the Moscow region photo in the garden
Caddy perennials have few crops that can compete with tree peonies for beauty, unpretentiousness and longevity (with the right agricultural technology, more than 50 years can grow in one place). They are suitable for gardening gardens, parks, squares.
Gorgeous inflorescences delight with a variety of colors and shapes, fill the space with a delicate scent. The first (20th of May) non-tertiary varieties bloom, then terry batons take over, after a couple of weeks the buds of the yellow peony bloom. If you simultaneously grow grassy peonies at the site, your garden will be decorated with beautiful flowering from mid-May to the end of the first summer month.
Tree peony on a flowerbed photo
Tree peonies can be planted solo or in groups. Look very impressive next to the architectural structures. Among the plants, suitable partners (or rather the background) are conifers (especially with a silvery shade of needles), chestnuts, and lilacs.
Plant between the bushes daffodils, crocuses, woods, tulips: when these cultures bloom, the leaves of peonies will close the empty places. Beautifully look next to the tree peonies holly, mahonia, weigela, and other ornamental shrubs.
Tree peony in the design of the garden in the photo variety Paeonia x suffruticosa ima Shimadaijin ’
In large areas (for example, in parks), tree peony bushes are planted as a colorful spot, and it is not desirable to plant on a lawn with a continuous strip - the majesty of the painting is lost. Think of a combination of size and color. It is better to create a parade composition from one sort of peonies. In the mixed planting, combine terry and non-double forms.
Peony yellow Paeonia lutea
Peony yellow Paeonia lutea photo of flowers in the garden
The color is bright yellow, most species of yellow peony have rare small flowers and long dissected leaves. Some hybrid varieties have acquired a more sophisticated look with double large flowers.
Delaware's Peony Paeonia delavayi
Peony Delaware Paeonia delavayi photo
Various shades of chestnut, rich burgundy. There are tall shrubs and more squat ones.
Peony Tree Delabeya photo
Pean Potanin Paeonia potaninii
Pean Potanin Paeonia potaninii photo
The color palette of the red-brown gamut, is distinguished by large loose flowers with flat centers. Not more than 1-1.2 m grows. Leaves are narrow, strongly dissected. When frost below -20 ° C requires shelter for the winter.
Peony Lemoine Paeonia lemoinei
Peony Lemoine grade Hesperus photo
Yellow, orange, pink, crimson tones. Spreading densely leafy shrub with large double flowers.
All varieties of tree peonies are divided into 3 groups:
- Chinese-European - have large terry inflorescences, they wilt under the weight of a bud. Color from pale pink to fuchsia.
- Japanese varieties - the flowers are not so large, but light, as if hovering under a bush.
- Hybrid forms of peony yellow and peony of Delaisay - various shades of yellow.
Popular tree peony varieties with photo and names
Tree Peony Red Giant Photo
Red giant - large red semi-double flowers with yellow centers. Abundant flowering. It requires shelter for the winter; pruning of branches is allowed to be one-third the length, but only in spring, after wintering, when you can see how much the tips of the shoots froze.
Trees Peony Kiao Sisters photo
Kiao sisters - beaters with a diameter of up to 16 cm, the colors are double: one half is dark red, the other has a white-cream color.
Tree peony blue sapphire blue sapphire photo
Sapphire - on one bush at the same time can be up to fifty huge flowers (about 18 cm in diameter). Petals of a pale pink shade, the heart is crimson.
Coral treelike peony Shan Hu Tai variety On a photo to a bush of 6 years
Coral altar is a colorful combination of snow white and salmon color, the diameter of the corolla is 20 cm.
Tree Peony Green Jade Paeonia suffruticosa Green Jade
Green Jade - Buds are lime tinged.
Tree peony Lavender grade photo
Variety Lavender has a delicate lilac shade with dark purple spots near the center. Anthers are yellow. The flowers are very large, blooming profusely.
Grades of tree peonies of yellow tones
Tree peony yellow variety Paeonia suffruticosa High Noon photo
High Noon variety with bright yellow flowers and dark purple spots in the center of the petals.
Tree peony Academician Sadovnichy
Academician Sadovnichy - the height of the bush varies from 70 cm to 1 m, the inflorescences are located at the level of the upper leaves. Bud cupped, semi-double. The petals are bright yellow in color, with a dark purple spot at the base, the filaments have a reddish-purple shade, and a creamy stigma.
Kuindzhi - non-double flowers with wide petals of bright yellow color, the base is decorated with a red spot.
Tree peony variety Souvenir de Maxime Cornu photo
Souvenir de Maxime Cornu (Souvenir de Maxim Cornu) - bush meter height. The flower is dense, double, drooping, retains freshness for a long time after cutting. The petals are bright yellow with a rim of pinkish-cream color.
Red and pink tree peony varieties
Tree Peony Vesuvius Paeonia suffruticosa ‘Vesuvian’ photo
Vesuvian (Vesuvius) - a bush about 75 cm high decorated with large double flowers. The petals are crimson-red, the short filaments are light red, the anthers have a pale yellow tint, the pistil is pale green with a purple stigma.
Tree pion Vladimir Novikov photo
Vladimir Novikov is a sprawling bush 1.3–1.5 m high. Corollas with a dark purple spot at the base, petals of maroon-magenta shade with corrugated edges. Filaments crimson color with bright yellow anthers.
Tree peony Gauguin Paeonia suffruticosa ‘Gauguin’ photo
Gauguin (Gauguin) - bush up to 1.2 m. Petals of raspberry-red shade with darker veins and border of fuchsia color.
Coral Sunset Coral Sunset Paeonia suffruticosa Coral Sunset photo
Коралл – куст метровой высоты. Цветы простые. Лепестки красно-пурпурного оттенка, в основании темно-красное пятно.
Петр Великий – многостебельный раскидистый куст высотой 1,3-1,5 см. Цветки крупные (составляют диаметр 20-25 см), полумахровые. Лепестки сиренево-красного оттенка с прожилками фиолетового цвета. Тычиночные нити имеют нежный сиреневый оттенок.
Пион древовидный Стефан фото
Стефан – раскидистый куст высотой 0,9-1 м. Имеет цветки диаметром до 20 см. Petals of crimson color with streaks of lilac shade, in the basis a dark-violet spot.
Vadim Tikhomirov - the height of the compact bush is 1.5 m. The petals are painted pink, the edges are corrugated, the center is decorated with a dark crimson spot.
Tree Peony Hofman Paeonia suffruticosa Hofman photo
Hoffman - the bush is 1.5 m high. The mauve pastel petals have dark purple spots in the center, the filaments are white, the anthers are yellow. Flowers are very large, semi-double, numerous.
Tree Peony Irina photo
Irina - bush reaches a height of 1.7 m. Semi-double flowers with a diameter of up to 17 cm with petals of a dark salmon shade, the base is dark magenta. Filaments bright crimson hue.
Tree Peony Muse photo
Muse - the height of the bush with bright green leaves is 1.3 m. Petals of raspberry-pink shade form 4 circles.
Tree peony grade Smolin
Smolin is a sprawling bush, some shoots can lie, grow up to 1.3 m. The base of the petals is bright purple, turning into a pale pink shade. The semi-double multi-row flower reaches a diameter of 25 cm. The leaves are green with a brownish tinge.
Marianna is a compact bush with a height of 1.2-1.4 m. Petals with corrugated edges are arranged in 3 rows. The center of the dark crimson color, the hue of the petals is pale pink.
Varieties of white tree peonies:
Tree peony Lomonosov photo
August - the bush reaches a height of 1.2-1.3 m. The flowers are goblet-shaped, the petals are snow-white, the center is decorated with a barely noticeable spot of pinkish hue.
Tree peony Paeonia suffruticosa variety Anastasia Sosnowiec photo
Anastasia Sosnovets - the height of a compact bush is 1.5 m. The flowers are simple, each petal is double-rowed with slightly corrugated edges, the base is decorated with a crimson shade.
Spring Waltz - grows up to 1.2 m in height. Petals are snow-white, the base is decorated with a blueberry spot, staminodial disc of red-purple hue.
Vorobievsky - one and a half meter bush. Simple flowers goblet-shaped with white petals and staminate lilac shade.
Tree peony White nights
Milky-white petals have maroon spots in the center, a middle with yellow large anthers. The leaves and branches are dark green with a purple tinge.
Maria is a sprawling bush with a height of 1.2-1.3 m. Semi-double flowers (petals are arranged in 2 rows) consist of snow-white petals with corrugated edges.
Tatiana - the height of the bush varies from 1 m to 1.2 cm. The flowers are semi-double (2-3 rows), with a crimson spot at the base.