In our country, lilac is considered to be one of the most beloved ornamental shrubs. Today in the world there are more than 30 of its varieties and bred more than 200 different varieties. This article will discuss the methods of reproduction of lilac, all possible nuances and features of each of the processes.
Main breeding methods
For the full development and growth of this shrub, as well as for long and lush flowering, a combination of several factors is necessary:
- high-grade lighting
- wind protection
- good drainage to prevent stagnant moisture.
If these conditions are met, the plant will grow quickly enough to allow the grower to independently propagate his favorite varieties of lilac on his plot.
Lilac propagates in the following ways:
- Growing from seed.
- Root growth.
- Root layering.
Each of the above methods has its advantages and difficulties, and to achieve a successful result, you must follow the requirements and rules.
Reproduction of lilac green cuttings
With this method, planting material is prepared either during flowering, or immediately after, that is, lilac cuttings are carried out in the spring. Side shoots, branches from the central (main) branches are selected.
Lilac cuttings should be cut from shoots on which 4 to 6 leaves have been formed, each of the cuttings must be at least 15 cm long and have at least 3 pairs of buds. The lower cut is performed obliquely, slightly below the last buds. Each prepared lilac sprigs must be removed by 2 lower leaves. All leaves must be cut in half, as shown in the picture.
Next, cut off all the tops of the cuttings, the cut should be straight. The lower end of the twig is processed by some growth stimulant, for example, “Korneynom”. The stalk must be kept for several hours in a solution prepared according to the instructions for the preparation, or simply dipped in a root-forming powder to save time.
After preparing the planting material you need to organize a bed for rooting lilacs. To do this, a small depression is dug up at the landing site and drainage is laid (sand or expanded clay) with a layer of about 12 cm. Next, humus is put and covered with earth, then you need to carefully shed the landing site with water.
After that, planting material is planted on the prepared garden, keeping the distance between plants and rows of at least 10 cm. After planting, you need to arrange a greenhouse - install the frame and stretch the film. The height of the frame should not be less than 50 cm. An example can be seen in the picture below.
Further care is to water once a week and to clean the falling leaves (this is a natural process).
The optimum conditions for rooting is considered to be a combination of a temperature of 20–25 degrees and a humidity of 90–95%.
The greenhouse should be regularly ventilated, for which it is necessary to slightly raise the edges of the film, avoiding a sharp temperature drop and getting cold drafts inside. After a month and a half, after the start of intensive formation of roots, the greenhouse can be removed. Further care in the summer is a regular watering as the soil dries and weeding. By autumn (September), the strongest seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place, and the weak should spend the winter sheltered.
Green lilac cuttings can also be rooted in flower pots or boxes at home. Preparation is carried out similarly, the cuttings are planted as in the picture.
When harvesting planting material should take into account the fact that about half of the twigs will take root and survive, so initially 2 times more shoots are needed to prepare for rooting. In this way lilac is propagated by cutting in spring.
You can get acquainted with the opinion of a specialist on how to propagate lilac cuttings on the video below.
Reproduction by lignified shoots
Reproduction of lilac cuttings can also be done by rooting already adult shoots, usually one-year-old branches. Planting material in this case is harvested in the fall or already at the end of winter. Branches also should not be shorter than 15 cm, have at least 3 pairs of buds. Shoots need to either prikopat in the sand and cleaned for the winter in a cold cellar, or simply bury them in the snow until spring.
In the spring planting lilac cuttings produced similar to the previous method. When harvesting branches, it should be borne in mind that such shoots are rooted poorly, the survival rate will be at best 30%. If you plant a lilac from a twig in this way, then seedlings will start blooming no earlier than 5 years from now.
Seed growing method
Lilac seeds are usually collected in late autumn, after leaf fall, before the first frost. After collection, they must be dried to full disclosure of the valves.
Next, you need to carry out their stratification. To do this, the seeds are mixed with sand in the ratio of 1: 3 (for one part of the seed 3 parts of wet sand) and kept in a refrigerator or cellar for two months.
Sowing on seedlings produced in March. The soil requires preliminary disinfection (steaming, processing with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, etc.). The lilac seeds are buried a few centimeters into the ground; after watering, the container must be covered with a film, creating a mini-greenhouse.
Shoots of common lilac appear 2 weeks later, and varietal - 2-3 months after sowing.
After the sprouts appear, the coating from the container must be removed. At the age of 2 weeks, seedlings need to dive into separate containers. Further care is regular watering (avoid over-wetting the soil).
You can also sow the seeds directly into the ground, the sowing time - before the winter, before the frost, until the soil froze. In the spring, when the seedlings get a little stronger and on each appear several true leaves, seedlings are planted.
Growing lilacs from seeds does not preserve the characteristics of the variety, the result can be unpredictable. Typically, this method is used to grow stock for the subsequent inoculation of varietal lilacs.
Reproduction of lilac young root shoots is at the same time the easiest and most natural way, because lilac tends to independently form shoots from the mother bush. In this case, the transplant is carried out only once, immediately to a permanent place, and the seedling receives minimal injuries.
The main advantage of this method is that the young plant will have all varietal signs of maternal.
Lilac seedlings need to fall, until mid-October, no later. The procedure is best carried out on an overcast day. Before separating a young plant, it is necessary to shed the soil well with water, the main root should be chopped carefully, with minimal trauma to the fragile root system of the young bush, at a distance of not less than 15-20 cm from the mother bush. After landing on a permanent place it should be well watered and provide shelter for the winter.
Some experts advise that this procedure be carried out in the summer, starting in July, in order to give the young plant time to take root and grow stronger after transplanting.
This version of breeding lilac is very simple in execution. In the spring, strong branches at the age of 1 year should be bent to the ground and prikopat, pre-secured with a pin or staple. During the growing season, it is necessary to moisten and fill the ground in time for escape in the place where it is dug.
This method requires a long time, as it will be possible to separate a young plant from the mother bush no earlier than 4 years after full rooting and the formation of its own root system.
The process of breeding lilac in this case will also be delayed for several seasons, since only preliminary preparation takes 2 years. It consists of the following steps:
- selection of maternal bush,
- complete pruning of branches in the autumn for two seasons.
In the third year, as soon as the branches on the mother bush reach 20 cm in length, it is necessary to carry out the procedures in a certain sequence. Step by step it looks like this.
- The first buds that are most developed are selected, and an incision is made on the bark under them. It is wound with wire in several turns, it is necessary in order to stimulate rooting. This is done with a few of the most powerful shoots, so as not to weaken the entire bush.
- Shoots dripping in half, then pour the ground in the process of growth of a young bush, so that it was always half in the ground.
- In the fall, the cuttings should be excavated and transplanted for re-growing.
This method of breeding lilac is also called the method of horizontal slips. It is also easiest to use by performing the following sequence of actions.
- Early in spring, after the earth dries out a little, choose a strong bush at the age of 3-4 years. Furrows 2 cm deep are drawn around it.
- Strong branches at the age of 1 year should be laid in the grooves and secure them in several places.
- Using copper wire, twist each branch in front of the buds three times.
- Fill the earth with furrows and water regularly.
- After some time, new shoots will start to grow from the ground, and as they grow, it is necessary to fill it with soil by half their height, before the onset of autumn.
- During the season pour the soil 3 times, as a result, the height of the embankment will be about 25 cm.
- In September, young layers should be separated and re-grown for several years.
Grafting a lilac can also be considered a breeding method, but rather complicated. The main condition for a successful result is that both the stock and the graft must belong to the same type of lilac. Plant lilac can be two methods:
- On the awakening kidney (held in early spring, from early March to early April).
- On a sleeping kidney (budding), is carried out in the period from the first decade of July to the first decade of August.
Most often, the lilac vaccination is carried out in the summer, as it is very difficult to catch the right moment in early spring. The procedure consists of several stages:
- preparation of stock,
- preparation of the scion,
- manufacture of shield
- budding procedure
- care after budding.
The best is the independent cultivation of stock from seeds, because vaccinations on cuttings rarely end successfully. In the process of preparation you need to do the following:
- in June, cut the side branches, leaving shoots 10-14 cm,
- A week before the procedure, it is necessary to water the bush well for easier bark separation.
The root neck should be up to 1.5 cm in diameter.
When preparing the material for budding the following conditions must be met:
- The escape for the scion must be 1 year old,
- the length of the graft cutting should be from 20 to 30 cm, thickness up to 4 mm,
- the scion shoot must be completely lignified, with large buds in the sinuses,
- cut it should be a week before the procedure,
- after cutting you need to remove the leaves, leaving the scapes,
- before grafting store vaccine material in a cool, damp place (in a refrigerator, wrapped in a damp cloth or moss).
Scutellum - graft prepared for grafting. Prepare it as follows:
- large buds must be removed from the shoot (recommended in the middle part of the cutting),
- at a height of 0.7 mm above a sharp knife with a sharp kidney, make a shallow incision at an acute angle, a little deeper just under the kidney itself,
- move the bark off the edge of the cut, trying not to damage the wood, otherwise the graft will not work.
Then you can proceed to vaccination.
The vaccination process consists of a specific sequence of actions.
- To clear the place of a stock, to wipe a place for inoculation with a damp rag.
- Make a T-shaped notch with a length of 2 to 3 cm with a sharp knife edge; its height above the ground should be at least 3 cm from the ground.
- Slightly separate the bark at the incision sites.
- Carefully insert the shield into the notch in the center, under the bark on the stock.
- Place the vaccination with a bandage of tape or elastic bandage. The bandage is fixed on the entire surface of the vaccination, from top to bottom, but the kidney must remain open.
- The stock must be sprinkled with soil, you can water it in a week.
- After 3 weeks, you can evaluate the result of budding. If the crayfish bud stays fresh, the vaccine was successful. If the bud on the shield is withered, then budding failed.
Before the onset of frost, the grafted stock is mulched with peat, budding should be at a depth of at least 10 cm.
In the spring, from the second half of March to the beginning of April, peat should be removed, the bandage removed and the stem cut to a height of 5-7 cm above the bud, leaving a so-called spike. Place pruning need to process garden pitch. To young vaccinated escape did not break, it is tied to the thorn. Starting from the third year, the grafted escape can be transplanted to a permanent place.
Care after budding
Starting from the second year after inoculation, you can begin to care for the grafted plant. It is necessary to water it regularly, loosen the soil and cut off new growth. In the spring, you can feed the complex fertilizer in an amount of 20-30 g according to the instructions for use.
In conclusion, it can be noted that among several types of lilac breeding, each grower can choose the most interesting for him. A novice flower lover is able to grow his lilac from a cutting, and an experienced one can budge on the stock grown with his own hands.
Popular garden plant
Under the common name lilac described about 30 species of shrubs that grow wild in Asia, as well as in southern and eastern Europe. Many of them have long been grown in gardens, but the most widespread varietal plants, characterized by the shape and color of flowers - they are now known more than 1500.
The bush looks like this:
- The average height of an adult plant is from 1.5 to 3 m. Branched shoots grow upwards.
- The leaves are opposite to each other. Most varieties are whole. Less common pinnose. In the winter the leaves fall.
- Flowers are gathered in panicle inflorescences. Most often they are painted in lilac (lilac) color of various shades.
- A fruit - a box with two shutters.
The most common of the species is common lilac. This shrub is very hardy, so it can feel good in both southern and northern areas. After planting, lilac practically does not need care, so it is actively used in gardening of cities and towns.
Independently propagate the bush you like is absolutely easy. Do it in several ways:
- by rooting cuttings,
- using otvodkov.
All methods are quite productive and are performed without too much difficulty.
Council If the lilac needs to be transplanted, it is better to do it 2 weeks after the end of flowering. This period is proven by experience.
How to propagate shrub cuttings
Green grafting is considered the best way. Perfectly rooted shoots taken from young (up to 6 years) plants. The optimal time for the procedure is the flowering period.
The procedure itself is carried out as follows:
- In the early morning, using a dummy knife or a razor, cut off green shoots of 3-4 orders. And you need to choose them in the middle of the bush. Zero, as well as fattening shoots should not be taken: they do not take root.
- Cut the cuttings. Each of them must have no less than 2 pairs of buds.
- The lower leaves are cut off completely, and the top half. This is done to reduce evaporation of water.
- Prepared cuttings put on the day in a solution of root stimulants.
- Planted in pre-prepared containers filled with substrate, which is used as a mixture of river sand and peat. The shoots are immersed in the soil 1.5-2 cm.
- On top of the container with cuttings arrange greenhouse made of polyethylene. If the pot is small and there are 1-2 pieces in it, then you can cover the planting with a trimmed plastic bottle.
- Caring for cuttings is reduced to maintaining a constant level of temperature indicators (22-24 ° C) and humidity (80-90%).
- The roots on the lilac cuttings appear a month later. After that, you need to teach the plants to fresh air, regularly opening the cuttings.
- Young lilacs can be planted in the garden in the fall, but it is better to grow it in a pot until spring.
- When propagated by cutting, the shrub will begin blooming in 4-5 years.
Attention! Not all species successfully reproduce by the method described above. Some have a very low rooting rate. Such varieties can be propagated by grafting on a specially grown stock of common lilac.
Reproduction by shoots and layings
Separating shoots coming from the uterine bush is allowed twice per season: in late spring and early fall.
- In the first case, shoots with a height of 5-7 cm are carefully separated together with the roots and planted in a garden under plastic or glass bottles. Shelter is removed after 2 weeks, after which they try to shade the plants at lunchtime.
- The shoots, which are separated in early September, are already completely woody and have a well-developed root system. Поэтому их сразу после отделения высаживают на постоянное место. Укрытие не требуется. На зиму посадки следует присыпать листьями.
Все сорта замечательно размножаются отводками, которые получают после окучивания молодой поросли корнесобственных кустов. Делают это следующим образом:
- Осенью маточный куст обрезается под корень.
- In the spring, after the shoots have grown back a little, they are pulled over with copper wire at the base or they make circular cuts there. Such techniques stimulate the formation of roots.
- Treated shoots spud at half the height.
- Over the summer in the places of constrictions or cuts grow roots. At the beginning of autumn, hilling is raked and sheared with young shears ready for planting.
There is another, so-called "Chinese" method of assigning shoots. Lilac, which has reached the age of 3-4 years old, is cut in autumn, leaving a stump with 2 pairs of buds. In the spring of new shoots pruned at the same level. So come to the growth of 8 pieces. shoots. Early in the spring they are laid out in the grooves around the bush, pinned and sprinkled with soil. In the fall, already full-fledged plants are separated by shears and planted in the garden.
The reproduction of the beautiful lilac is a simple affair and accessible to everyone. Adhering to the basic rules, you can grow any fragrant shrub without special skills.
How to propagate a lilac bush - four proven methods
If you want to plant a lilac on the plot, there is nothing easier than buying a ready-made sapling. However, if you notice rare variety, then you have to propagate the lilac yourself.
Reproduction of lilac by four methods:
- by separating the shoots
- and sowing seeds.
Let's analyze each of them in more detail.
This is the most elementary and pretty fast breeding technique. The best time to separate the overgrowth from the mother bush is the autumn time. To carry out the procedure, it is necessary to cut the root at a distance of 17–20 cm from the seedlings from the bush of a lilac root. This should be done with shears and very carefully so as not to damage the plant (the mother plant).
Since the seedling is similar to the letter "t" (inverted), it is planted in a suitable groove on a separate bed. Just a couple of years, when the plant grows up and strengthened, it can be transplanted to a permanent place at the dacha.
If you notice a vending bush in the summer, then the lilac can also be propagated and at this time - starting in the second half of July. The day before this bush should be generously watered. During the summer, the peak of the peak should also be moistened periodically. But in sunny weather, young saplings still require shading.
Cutting (how to propagate lilac cuttings)
By the way, lilac cuttings should after flowering. Adult shrubs are great for this - 7-8 years. The processes should be annuals, not overly thick and with short internodes.
Cuttings should be cut in the morning or evening with a well-sharpened knife. Their best length is 10-15 cm. Each cutting must be from 3 to 4 buds. In this case, the cut should be made close to the lower node. After that, it is necessary to cut off the top and shorten the upper leaves by 1/3 (the lower ones should also be properly removed).
Cut cuttings should be placed in a mixture of Epina-Extra for 15-17 hours. After that, their lower sections should be powdered with a root formation stimulator (suppose, by Kornevin) and planted in a greenhouse.
A mixture of coarse river sand and peat (2 parts) with the addition of perlite (1 part) is suitable as soil. Between the cuttings, the distance should be such that they are only slightly in contact with each other leaves. As a top layer, you can pour in some sand to protect the cuttings from mold and rot. Experts recommend the day before planting the cuttings, shed the soil in the greenhouse with a solution of Fitosporin-M.
Reproduction of lilac cuttings takes a very long time: this process can take about 6-8 weeks. During reproduction, cuttings should be pritenyat from the bright sun and from time to time to spray them. Withering or falling leaves must be removed immediately. Starting from August, the greenhouse should be regularly ventilated, it would be desirable to do this in the dark, and a couple of weeks after that, completely unfold the seedlings.
If by September-month the cuttings have time to settle down, that is, the reproduction of lilac cuttings in the spring, then they can transplant in open ground. Plants that are late in their formation, it is better to leave for next year. At first, the young plant vigorously grows its roots, so it is not worth waiting for an obvious increase and flowering in the first year.
The most difficult method is the grafting of lilac. Budding most often produced in the spring season, when sap flow begins. If you plant a varietal lilac, then the stock must be related to the same species as the variety you prefer.
Only natural species of lilac are suitable for the seed method. By this method is to resort, only if you need to get the maximum seedlings (at a time). Let's just say, as a stock for grafting. The only thing worth understanding is that this process is not fast and rather laborious.
First of all, after the completion of lilac flowering, the maximum allowable number of drying inflorescences should be removed, since flower buds form only on summer shoots. Note, if you cut off the faded inflorescences in the autumn season, then next year in the spring, you should not expect that the lilac will bloom ...
- If it requires sanitary pruning, then it does not matter what time of year it is carried out. However, the best option is still spring.
- To freshen old sprigs with new lilacs for new ones, do this in stages, cutting out two or three old branches once a year, but only in springtime.
- Most gardeners make lilac cultural pruning. Because of this, only the principal six or more branches are left, observing a certain interval between them. Many, perhaps, will wonder, what is it for? In order to give the crown not only a certain shape, but also an attractive appearance. The remaining branches are cut, the same ones that are turned inside the bush, cut out at all. By the way, it is advisable to perform a similar procedure from year to year (in spring), before the kidneys swell.
To maintain moisture spray cuttings with water (everyday). Sand should not be over dried. To prevent mold from settling on the leaves, spray them with potassium permanganate (pale pink solution of potassium permanganate) once a week. As necessary, blot the condensate that has been organized, and after the formation of the roots, proceed to airing.
As a rule, the root system arises in a month or two. Until the autumn, grow the cuttings in the cuttings (if they managed to start by this time), but in September they will be planted on the garden bed for subsequent re-growth, located in a well-lit place with fertile, typical soil for acidity, then pour.
In particular, the distance between the cuttings should be between 25-30 cm.
Undoubtedly, lilac today is the favorite plant of many gardeners from the Russian Federation (RF). How to grow a lilac from a twig, what is the essence of lilac breeding and from what. To answer these questions you need to adhere to the above rules and tips.
In fact, with the onset of spring, the bush makes us happy with large, uviform and paniculate baskets, emitting a fragrant and fragrant smell around itself. But at the same time it has some drawbacks, for example, lilac does not tolerate excessive salinization, oversaturation and desiccation of the soil. Polluted air and high acidity of the soil is not the best effect on it. Late spring frosts also harm foliage and buds. Does not like to coexist on the site, and in a vase with flowers such as lilies of the valley. Therefore, to grow or not to grow this wonderful plant is up to you and only you!
Lilac - thermophilic, and in general, unpretentious plant. Shrub is very fond of sunlight and freedom. Therefore, it is better to plant a lilac in the place where it can grow freely. However, the shrub is not very fond of drafts, so keep this in mind when planting. The soil will suit any, even not the most fertile, possibly stony. Lilac does not like stagnant moisture, so you can plant a shrub for drainage. At least, it will only contribute to normal growth. Lilac unpretentious in the care and planting. Therefore, it does not require any mineral dressings.
More details on each of these methods. So.
Reproduction of lilacs in this way is quite simple. You will need a cutting. Suitable as a young, green pagon, and already stiffened. You can cut it in spring, summer, and also in the deep autumn, when the bush has thrown off the leaves. Let's take a closer look at those cuttings that are cut in the spring, during the flowering of the bush. What do you need to know?
- gently cut the stalk, which is located from 4 to 6 leaves. This is usually a twig with three to four pairs of buds. Sheet on it must be left,
- before planting the stalk, you need to remove the leaves from the last two buds,
- we cut a sprig of bevel,
- the top of the twigs should be cut in a straight line,
- You can process the cuttings with special growth solutions and leave them for 18 hours,
- Preparing a pit for planting. To do this, pour drainage to the bottom, about 15 cm, pour liquid humus, and pour water abundantly,
- plant cuttings, leaving 5 cm apart,
- we cover with film
- we water them about once a week,
- remove dead leaves,
- choose the best shoots and transplant to a permanent place, remove weak shoots.
As you can see, the method of propagation by cuttings is very simple. Sometimes you can not immediately plant the cuttings in the ground, and previously landed in a pot. But at once it is worth understanding that you will not have 100 exit. Approximately 50% of all cuttings are rejected or not accepted.
If you need to grow a lilac from already stiffened branches, then they should be prepared in late autumn. Cut the cuttings, as shown above, and leave in the wet sand in the basement to winter. Then in the spring transplant Chubuk in a warm land. This method planted lilac will bloom in about 5-7 years.
Adding an article to a new collection
In late spring and summer, lilacs can be easily propagated at home with the help of rooted green cuttings. In the article we will describe in detail and show how to do it correctly.
Lilac ornamental varieties propagated by shoots, layering, grafting and cuttings. To instill lilac, you need to have some skills, and it is convenient to multiply the shrub already growing in the country house with overgrowths and layering. If you want to bring the plant from another place, it is best to resort to grafting. With this method, you can rooted lilacs, even from a bouquet. Provided that it was cut no later than one day ago.
In addition, note that lilac is a difficult to root plant. Therefore, for successful breeding it is important to observe certain conditions:
- Do not miss a suitable period for harvesting cuttings. Green twigs of lilac cut during flowering or immediately after it, since woody cuttings do not root. And it's best to do it early in the morning.
- Use suitable cuttings. They need to be cut from the middle of the crown of young bushes (up to 6 years old) and from the middle part of the shoot. At the same time on the handle (10-15 cm long) must be 2-3 buds. Shoots coming from thick boughs (tops) are unsuitable.
- Withstand temperature and humidity. The optimum temperature for rooting cuttings - 22-25 ° C, and humidity - 85-95%.
Cuttings must be green
Preparation of green cuttings
1. Using a sharp pruner, remove the leaves from the lower node of the cutting.
2. As close as possible to this node, without leaving a stump, make an oblique cut. Note: cuttings with cuts in the internodes are not rooted.
Treat the cutting on the handle very carefully: the lilac roots grow only in the lower node. And a wrongly made cut will result in the plants not taking root.
3. Cut all leaves remaining on the handle by half.
4. Above the top knot, departing 1 cm, cut off the top of the shoot. In this case, the cut should be smooth.
5. Put the prepared cuttings into the solution with the root stimulator.
Water temperature should be between 18-20 ° C. To do this, you can use any drug, but, as shown by our experiment, it is more efficient to use Epin-Extra. Keep cuttings in the stimulator solution for 14-17 hours.
Rooting cuttings of lilac
1. Prepare the soil. It is better to root the cuttings in a mixture of peat (2 parts) and coarse-grained perlite (1 part). Sand is not desirable to add.
2. In the handle (or any other container with a plastic lid) pour a small layer of drainage, and on top of it - prepared soil mixture in a layer of 10 cm.
Then pour a layer (3 cm) of coarse sand - it is desirable to use river.
3. Liberally moisten the soil. To avoid infection with fungal diseases, you can shed the earth with a solution of fungicide (Fundazol).
4. In the wet sand with a thin stick, make a small hole and place a cutting in it to a depth of 1 cm. Make sure that the cutting of the cutting is in the sand, but does not touch the soil mixture. The remaining cuttings are planted so that they do not cling to each other leaves.
5. Spray the spray with a spray of water at room temperature.
6. Cover the container with a transparent plastic cap (you can use a cut-off plastic bottle) or a film and place it in penumbra.
Lilac cuttings care
To maintain moisture, spray the cuttings daily with water. The sand should not dry out. To prevent mold from forming on the leaves, spray them once a week with a light pink solution of potassium permanganate.
As necessary, blot the condensate formed, and after the formation of the roots of the cuttings begin to air.
Usually the roots appear in 30-60 days. Until the autumn, grow the cuttings in the cuttings (if they managed to take root by this time), and in September you will land on a growing bed located in a well-lit place with a light, fertile soil of neutral acidity, then pour it. The distance between the cuttings should be about 30 cm.
If in the fall the leaves on the cuttings darkened - do not worry. It is important that the kidneys and roots are not extinct.
For the winter, cover the cuttings with spanbond or spruce branches. In the spring with the onset of warm weather, remove the shelter. After 1-2 years, a lilac sapling can be transplanted to a permanent place. And after 2-3 years the plant will bloom.
As you can see, to grow a lilac from green cuttings is easy. But at home, they tend to take root only in 50-70% of cases. Therefore, harvest a few branches of lilac.
Method 1: separation of shoots
This is the easiest and fairly fast way to reproduce lilacs. The best time to separate the overgrowth from the mother bush is autumn. To carry out the procedure, it is necessary to cut the root at a distance of 15–20 cm from the seedlings from the bush of a lilac root. This should be done with shears and very carefully so as not to damage the uterine plant.
Since the seedling looks like an inverted "t", it is planted in a suitable groove on a separate bed. After 1-2 years, when the plant grows and gets stronger, it can be transplanted to a permanent place.
If you have noticed a favorite bush in summer, then lilac can also be propagated at this time - starting in the second half of July. The day before the bush should be poured abundantly. During the summer, the transplanted delenka should also be moistened periodically. And in sunny weather, young lilac saplings require shading.
Method 2: grafting
To cut the lilac is best after its flowering. For this, adult bushes are well suited - 5-8 years. Shoots should be annual, non-lignified, not too thick and with short internodes.
Cuttings should be cut in the morning or evening with a well-sharpened knife. Their optimal length is 10-15 cm. Each cutting must have from 2 to 4 buds. In this case, the cut should be made close to the lower node. After this, it is necessary to cut the tip and shorten the upper leaflets by 1/3 (the lower ones should be carefully removed).
Cut cuttings should be placed in a solution Epin-Extra for 12-18 hours. After that, their lower sections should be powdered with a root formation stimulant (for example, by Kornevin) and planted in a greenhouse.
A mixture of coarse sand and peat with the addition of perlite is suitable as a primer. The distance between the cuttings should be such that they only slightly touch each other with leaves. As a top layer, some river sand can be poured in order to protect the cuttings from rot and mildew.
The day before planting the cuttings, the soil in the greenhouse is recommended to be shed with Fitosporin-M solution.
Lilac rooted for a long time: it can take up to 6-8 weeks. During this time, the cuttings need to pritenyat from the bright sun and periodically spray. Fading or falling leaves must be removed immediately. Starting from August, the greenhouse should be periodically aired, preferably in the evening, and a couple of weeks after that, the seedlings should be completely opened.
If by September the cuttings have time to take root, they can be transplanted into the open ground. Plants that are late in development, it is better to leave for next year. At first, the young lilac is actively increasing its roots, so it is not necessary to wait for a clear increase and flowering in the first year.
Method 4: Sowing Seeds
Для размножения семенным способом подходят только природные виды сирени. К данному методу стоит прибегать, если вам за один раз нужно получить много саженцев сирени. Например, в качестве подвоев для прививки. Только сразу стоит понимать, что процесс этот далеко не быстрый.
Чтобы собрать семена с сирени, необходимо сорвать несколько соцветий с понравившегося растения и подсушить. Лучшее время для этого – сентябрь-октябрь. Seeds can be sown immediately after extraction from dried inflorescences, and can be saved until spring (but then they will need stratification).
Usually seeds are sown in a box with steamed earth. In winter, it should stand in a place where snow will not deflate from it. So the seeds of lilac will be stratified in natural conditions and will sprout in spring.
Have you ever propagated lilacs? Which way do you like more? Share with us in the comments or on the forum.
Where to start rooting lilacs
Preparation of material for future landings can be made only in a certain period. Shrub should be in a state of flowering. At this point in the branches accumulate nutrients in the maximum amount.
Sometimes you can find recommendations, where the authors argue that you need to wait for the completion of flowering. Unfortunately, after flowering, the concentration of food drops sharply, which significantly reduces the survival rate of the cuttings.
Preparation should be carried out two to three days before the start of blooming flowers. It is at this time that the plant has a concentrated maximum of nutrition. The probability of rooting reaches 95%.
Select small lignified shoots, located near the flowers. The flowers themselves are not used, you need what is next to them. There should be at least 6 leaves on the cut branch - this is a sign of sufficient accumulation of forces for subsequent actions.
Procurement of cuttings
If it is formed on the lateral shoot, near the peduncle from four to six leaves, it can be used as a breeding ground. It is desirable to have a total length of 12 to 15 cm. On the stem you need to observe the presence of three pairs of buds.
Attention! The use of shoots, next to which there are no flower stalks, is useless. They cannot form roots. They do not have enough nutrients.
As practice shows, leave the leaves on the harvested material should not be. They evaporate moisture, so you need to leave only part of the sheet plate.
Important! Many authors rewrite the same text many times. At the same time they say that all the available (4 ... 6) leaves should be cut in half. So you can not do! The plant will not be able to give the root and provide moisture to the remaining foliage.
Leave only one sheet, which removes at least 60% of the surface. Here such a stalk has about 80 ... 85% for survival and rooting. From below it is cut at an angle of 45 ° below the kidney.
To ensure that you have future planting material, several similar cuttings are harvested. They need to prepare for planting on the day of cutting.
Preparation of the substrate for rooting cuttings
For shanks prepare special nurseries:
- Take a seedling box with a depth of at least 60 mm.
- At the bottom there should be holes for running off of water.
- Put on a pallet.
- Pour lowland peat.
- Approximately 20 ... 25% of river sand is mixed with it.
- Perlite is added, about 50% of the peat volume.
- The whole mixture is stirred.
- Set the arc, you can bend from the wire and set from edge to edge.
- Prepare the film. You can use polyethylene, and you can apply a vapor barrier film recommended for wall insulation.
- Spill the whole mass of a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate. It is desirable to heat it to a temperature of 60 ... 70 ° С. Not only decontamination will occur, but also the substrate will be moistened.
Prepare in advance the place where the nursery will be installed for cuttings. It is desirable to have a shaded warm corner. It should get sunshine only in the morning before lunch.
Preparation of a solution to stimulate root growth
- Recipe number 1 on the basis of "Epin Extra"
- 1 ml "Epin Extra" dissolved in 1 liter of water (for 10 cuttings need at least 200 ml of working solution).
- Pour the solution into the container, leaving 20 ... 30 mm from the top edge.
- Recipe number 2 based on heteroauxin
- Dissolve 1 tablet in 1 liter of water.
- Pour the solution into a suitable container (approximately 10 ml per 10 cuttings).
- The prepared rooting material is washed in warm water, an oblique cut is made under the kidney by 45 °, the remaining water is shaken off and placed in the rooting solution. The cuttings are kept in the solution for at least 16 ... 20 hours.
- Take out and dipped in powder "Kornevin" or wood ash.
- Spray the substrate with a solution, where the planting branches are kept.
- Planted according to the scheme: the distance between the rows is 10 ... 12 cm, the distance in the row is 6 ... 8 cm.
- They are buried by 3 ... 5 cm (a slight touch of the cut leaves between themselves is allowed).
- Cover the greenhouse film.
Growing lilac seedlings
Two or three times a day, you need to air the greenhouse, lifting the film for a few seconds. After 30 ... 50 days, you can check how successfully rooting takes place.
Attention! If after 10.15 days the leaf turned black, the buds began to darken and fall off, then you need to remove such a stalk. He did not take root and did not give roots.
Seedlings are taken out to an open place, the film is not completely removed, they are placed in a shade so that only a part of the daylight rays on the greenhouse fall, preferably in the morning.
The film is opened in the evening for 2 ... 4 hours. At night, be sure to close
During the remaining time of summer, it is desirable to feed the growing bushes. They should already give an increase in foliage. Hold at least two dressings. Periodicity is approximately 20 ... 25 days.
In a liter of water is dissolved:
- 2.5 ... 3.0 g of ammonium nitrate,
- 1.5 ... 2.0 g of superphosphate,
- 0.5 ... 0.8 g of potassium nitrate.
This solution is watered grown plants. You can spray on top, overflowing part of the solution in the sprayer. The jet should be fine droplets in the form of fog.
After the second feeding, which will be at the end of August or beginning of September, the film can be removed.
Important! Do not allow the substrate to dry out. Overwetting is also not necessary. Watering is carried out 1 time in three to four days.
In autumn, at the end of September or in the first days of October, it is advisable to warm the box with the seedlings for the winter. Use straw or hay. Some gardeners use peat, which cover seedlings on top.
Second year works
In the spring (end of March, beginning of April) next year, an assessment of grown seedlings of lilac bushes is carried out. Reject sick and weak bushes.
Prepare a place in the garden or in the garden, where shkolka (as they call plants grown from cuttings) will grow until the autumn.
Requirements for the site:
- the place should be illuminated by the sun for at least 10 hours in the summer,
- the soil is light, loose fertilized,
- convenient watering with settled water that does not contain chlorine.
Attention! If there is an excess of chlorine in the irrigation water, as well as magnesium and calcium salts, then the flowers may change color. They may not correspond to the parent plant.
Transplantation must be carried out together with a lump of earth surrounding the plant. Try not to damage the small roots. Planted according to the scheme:
- the distance between the rows is 45 ... 55 cm,
- the distance between the bushes is 35 ... 45 cm.
Attention! Some gardeners who grow lilac bushes for sale use plastic buckets in which they drill holes (diameter 6 ... 8 mm) from the bottom and in the side walls. The volume of buckets 10 ... 12 liters. Buckets are added dropwise by 2/3 of the height.
Care for the second years of cultivation is simple:
- timely watering is needed, depending on the weather and soil conditions on the shkolka. It is advisable to soak the soil to a depth of 30 cm one or two times during the summer (the summer rains of the Central Russian Federation will do this work instead of a gardener),
- produce three fertilizer fertilizer and one organic.
Organic top dressing
Experienced gardeners recommend using rabbit dung. It is used without additional training.
- Spread 200 ... 250 g of rabbit manure in an area of one square meter.
- They dig to a depth of about 5 ... 8 cm.
Attention! Perekopka lead, leaving a protective zone around the bush 7 ... 8 cm, so as not to damage the root part.
In the autumn after the leaves fall, the lilac bush can be replanted to a permanent place. For transplanting, digging is carried out at a distance of 35 ... 45 cm from the formed trunk. To facilitate the process, you can spill water, then most of the roots remain intact.
Important! Approximately 35% of the planted cuttings finally take root.
Growing a lilac bush from the air layer
In addition to grafting, you can get a new plant, if you form a layering. In this case survival rate is up to 90 ... 95%:
- A suitable branch is selected, which can be further cut off.
- A plastic container is being prepared, the future lilac bush will form the roots in it.
- A small portion of the bark is removed by a ring on the branch and smeared with phytohormone.
- Below is tied with a wire plastic bag.
- Down put moss-sphagnum.
- Pour nutrient mixture (substrate).
- It is poured with Epin Extra.
- Knotted on top.
- After 30 ... 40 days the roots are formed.
- Plastic container is put on the branch, fixed. Remove the plastic bag and pour in the primer.
- In the autumn after the leaves fall, the branch is pruned below the tank.
- Transplanted in the second year of growing in shkolku.
- By the end of the second season get a new lilac bush.
- His transplanted to a permanent place.
Some gardeners on one bush form several air layers. This method is more effective than growing from cuttings.