In the process of crossing the varieties Vazhak and Plentiful in 1974, the breeder Kichin V. V. brought out the apple cultivar President. The uniqueness of the variety in compactness, it can be grown in plantations, in gardens, greenhouses. Since 2002, the variety has been officially zoned.
The President was included in the State Register since 2004. The All-Russian Breeding and Technological Institute of Horticulture on behalf of the creator of Kichin Viktor Valerianovich made the originator of the variety. From this point on cultivation of this variety is allowed in the Central region of the country.
Description of the columnar apple President
The apple tree is medium sized, with the correct application of agrotechnical methods in growth reaches 2.5 m. It grows rapidly due to mineral replenishment. The crown of apple is thick, kolonovidnogo type Shoots are arranged in groups, evenly, throughout the trunk. The hybrid fruit grows thick, rounded, green with grayish streaks.
The foliage is medium in size, broadly ovoid in shape, with a dark green tint. From the ground 30 cm develops ovary. Fruit buds bloom early due to early winter ripening. The trunk of a tree is one, with the presence of a spear and ring. The apple tree does not bend from the big harvest, the trunk has a solid structure. The average life expectancy of about 15-20 years.
Apple grow the President in the central regions, mainly in plantation form. In other regions, this variety grows without any obstacles. In the northern regions of the variety is almost not grown, as it has an average resistance to cold.
Characteristics of the columnar apple President
The species is unique in that it has a single stem with strong, short fruit processes. Although quite often there are reviews of apple varieties President, where they write that the tree grows 2-3 trunks from the main one. The internodes of the leaves are shortened, which forms a dense apple crown. The column is obtained with a thick undergrowth, lots of apples, up to 2 m in height.
The side shoots grow at a right angle, so the tree takes on a columnar shape with a radius of 20 cm. According to the growing power of an apple tree of semi-dwarf species. Feeding grows fast. The tree bears fruit regularly. The roots are dense, with transplant well take root.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
In the Central region, the variety of apple-tree is kolonovidnoy President maintains a positive temperature of 45ºС Exceeding the limit leads to drying out of the apple tree. Sometimes apples are baked right on the tree, become tasteless, bitter, so the President is rarely grown in the southern regions of the country.
In the central region, the winter is not so cold, the variety calmly carries up to -35-40 ºС. It is because of the climate that this variety is not recommended to grow either in the southern or the northern regions of Russia.
At cultivation of kolonovidny grades pollinators are required. Apple trees are pollinated by the presence of pears and apple trees of other varieties in the neighborhood. Without pollination from a tree it is possible to collect 6 kg, together with it up to 10 kg. At one site with the President on 10 square meters. m planted up to 15-20 trees of various varieties.
Yield and fruiting
The shape of apple fruits are similar to turnips, one-dimensional, large. However, after 10-15 years of fruiting, the size of the crop and apples decreases. The mass of one apple is from 140 to 350 g. The apples are wide ribbed, always of regular shape, without curvature. The fruit has subcutaneous points, they are barely noticeable, few in number. The flesh is fine-grained, bright white, the density of the average consistency.
The taste of apples is sweet and sour, there is a faint flavor. Trees bear fruit for 3 years from the time of planting. Apples ripen by mid-August. The harvest from a single tree with the support of an agraphone is 10-16 kg. During the cold summer only 8-10 kg.
Dry leaves of apple are part of the infusions as the main component. Fruits are consumed raw, boiled, baked and dried. The peel of apples contains cellulose; when it is consumed, it is possible to normalize the metabolism, to get rid of the threat of infectious diseases.
The flesh of the President has high bactericidal properties. Pulp of pulp is used to treat ulcers, mild burns. In folk medicine, apples are used in indigestion. Tincture of leaves and fruits treats laryngitis, colds.
Apples President varieties are subject to transportation in covered vehicles. Each apple is packed in a special grid, put in boxes. The size and volume of the boxes can be anything. After harvesting, apples are stored in a dry, dark place. To increase the shelf life of the crop is placed in sawdust.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Apple tree has the following advantages:
- compactness and short stature
- early ripening,
- can give fruit in the first year of planting,
- frost resistance
- no lateral branches.
Among the negative reviews of the columnar apple, the President outlines the shortcomings in growing:
- it is difficult to get seedlings
- small shelf life of 1-2 months
- high price of seedlings,
- taste depends on the area of growth,
- need pollinators.
Choosing the right place
Illumination plays an important role for the President. In case of insufficient light, the fruits will be small in size, sour to the taste. Seat should be protected from the north winds. Usually the President is planted along fences on the sunny side.
Selection and preparation of planting material
When buying a seedling should have from 5 to 7 fruit branches. A suitable height is 1.5 m. The length of the roots is 30-40 cm. The condition of the roots must be without damages, fibrous, without rudiments of horse cancer. The bark should be without damage, log cabins, traces of rodent teeth. After purchasing the seedling must be planted immediately in the ground. In the extreme case, the tree will live 4-5 days without soil.
To begin with, a site for planting apple trees needs to be dug up. Next, dig holes 50 cm wide and deep. Excavated soil mixed with mineral fertilizer. Pour some of the mixture obtained to the landing site. Together with a seedling, a frame stick is inserted into the hole. Roots are covered with the remaining soil, all air voids are covered with earth. Aryk is formed around the tree, 5-6 liters of water are poured.
Aftercare for the apple tree
Watering must be carried out continuously. The soil must be wet. Drip irrigation method is most comfortable for the apple president. In the absence of such an opportunity, it is necessary to pour 1 bucket once every 3 days under a tree.
For the first season of flowering spend 4-5 fertilizing. The first is produced before planting, the next during the flowering period. Subsequent feeding every 2 weeks. One fertilizer bucket should be enough for 3-4 trees.
In preparation for the winter, the top of the tree and the excess processes are cut. After the winter, frozen branches are pruned. To save the column when replacing the old stem leave only one shoot. For the winter, the trunk of the apple tree is whitened, covered with straw. The upper part of the tree is wrapped with a rag, covered with a bag.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
Apple Tree President may be ill, be attacked:
From scab, a variety is sprayed with chemicals until fruit begins to set. To prevent the tree from undergoing fruit rot, gardeners treat apples with a solution of copper sulfate and Bordeaux mixture. The moth will die from a solution of phytoverm, lepidocide. Trees are sprayed before flowering, the procedure is repeated after 7-10 days.
Kolonovidnaya Apple President preferred in growing and gardeners, and breeders. This variety is suitable for a novice agronomist, because the President quickly gives fruit. You should not wait for a large crop from this variety. But as an ornamental part of the garden, the President fits easily into the setting.
Apple "President": characteristics and description of the variety
Colon-shaped apple varieties "President" in botanical descriptions, many qualify as semi-dwarf fruit trees. Their trunks barely reach two meters in height, which is convenient when harvesting. Seedlings of this variety have a very developed powerful root system, which easily adapts to any non-acidic soil, adapts well after transplanting.
Inflorescences are already forming on the second-year saplings., but professionals advise them to be removed so that the tree is strong before the start of fruiting. In the fifth year of life, "President" produces a harvest. On average, one young trunk can be removed up to 7 kilograms of large apples. In favorable conditions, with proper pruning, dressing and regular watering, a mature apple can bring more than 15 kilograms of crop.
The life span of this variety of apple trees, like of all columnar trees, is up to 50 years, but stable high yielding will last only a third of this period. The length of the “President” is not wide, its thickness in adulthood barely reaches 20 cm. The tree is winter-hardy and is immunized with typical immunity to apple diseases and harmful insects.
The weight of one fruit ranges from 150-250 g. The beginning of ripening occurs in the last weeks of summer and lasts until mid-September. Apples have good transportability and keeping quality. Subject to the rules of preparing the harvest for winter saving, it can last until the New Year.
Many housewives process fragrant fruits for home canning, make them dried fruits or leave for fresh consumption.
Where will grow the apple tree: select the conditions for growing
A strong seedling with a powerful rhizome without any damage, nodules and a straight thick boom is the key to a full tree vegetation during the first decade. But for the “President” variety and its successful cultivation this is not enough. It is important to choose the right place for future landing. In this case, special attention should be paid to the location of groundwater, lighting and physiological features of the earth. We will understand in more detail.
Lighting for the apple tree
The “President”, like other varieties of columnar apple trees, prefers a well-lit, even, protected from northern winds and drafts, a site away from cold lowlands, marshy and stony terrain. The tree will not be comfortable developing in the sun and slopes, as well as in areas where groundwater is located closer than one and a half meters from the soil surface. Look in your yard for a place where there is a lot of diffused light, no shade, snow accumulates in winter, and spring water does not stagnate.
In what soil to plant a columnar apple of the President variety
For Presidential apple trees, light substrates with neutral acidity are recommended, and also a columnar culture will take root well in black-earth soils, which are characterized by nutrients and life-giving characteristics.
To at home check the acid reaction of the earth, you need to dial a glass of water and add a small handful of top layer, sprinkle soda on top. The beginning hiss indicates the need to neutralize the substrate. The procedure is carried out using a well-known pushonok or old plaster. Material is introduced in the range of 150-300 g per square meter of garden.
The planting of the “President” - a variety of a columnar apple - can be planned for the autumn and spring time. Among biologists, it is assumed that in October only those specimens that are more than two years old are planted. Many specialists are prone to rooting of seedlings in March, because in this case the tree has enough time before the onset of cold weather to grow a strong crown and strengthen the roots. It is important throughout the warm season to provide the necessary moisture to the apple tree. Let us analyze in detail all the stages of landing.
Landing pit preparation
Before planting the “President” apple tree, a number of preparatory works should be carried out. When with the choice of a sapling and a place for landing were defined, it is possible to start preparation of a hole. The first thing you need to dig a 75 cm recess with a diameter of 1 m. If the root system of the seedling is small, you can reduce the size so that the roots are not crowded.
When digging the hole, fold the first 10 spade bayonets onto a separate mound. This is a fertile layer of soil, which later will be useful for planting. It is mixed with equal parts of peat, compost and humus. In the middle of the pit they drive in a wooden peg with a pointed and burnt edge, drainage is poured around it and the prepared substrate is poured from above.
Having learned when to replant columnar apple trees, let's look at the main technologies. Gardeners distinguish between their two.
The first involves compaction boles in rows with a distance of 40 cm between them. At the same time, the row spacing is up to 2.5 meters.
The second way is in a square planting, when adjacent trees on all sides are located after 1 m.
Some gardeners use the third classic option, representing a 90 x 60 scheme. Miniature kolonovidnye krona "President" is well combined with other low-growing cultures and allow you to create a large garden in a small area.
Soil moisture and watering apple trees
In the first year of life, apple varieties of "President" require much more moisture than mature trees. It is necessary to water them often in small portions. The main thing is that the earth in the near-circle wheel does not dry out and not be covered with a dense dry crust. Watch the soil: it should not dry out and turn into a swampy slime. In such conditions, the roots will either dry out or start to rot from excess moisture. Therefore, the key role is played by the measure in the number of irrigations.
It is advisable to moisten young trees up to two times a week, for three-year specimens, 30 liters of liquid are sufficient for 7 days. In large garden areas, the irrigation process is facilitated by rain and drip installations, supplying water in a constant stream in small portions. All moisturizing procedures, regardless of the method, are carried out in the evening, so that during the night the tree absorbs moisture and does not get sunburn.
How much water to pour out under each tree depends on its age. One-year saplings will need up to 3 buckets, and five-year-olds - 5. First watering for all fruits is organized in the spring before buds begin to bloom. The second for mature apples is planned during the formation of greenfinches, the next - during their growth. Last moistening in the absence of heat is carried out 2 weeks before the harvest. And with a long dry autumn, the procedure is repeated, thus protecting the roots from freezing in winter.
Features feeding the variety "President"
Yield of apple can be significantly increased literate systematic feeding. They are carried out throughout the entire period of tree development. Begin in the spring when shoots enter a phase of intensive growth, watering the tree trunks with an infusion of chicken manure. For this purpose, a depression of 30 cm is made in the soil, and fertilizer is poured into it. After the procedure, the hole is sealed with soil.
Winter-hardy qualities of fruit trees must be strengthened with mineral complex fertilizers, on which the “autumn” mark stands. The procedure is carried out in the first weeks of September. Alternatively, suitable humus.
How to prune the columnar apple
A small compact apple tree of the “President” variety needs formative pruning only in cases when the branches are developing incorrectly, are ill and interfere with each other. The vertical shape of the tree does not provide for frequent pruning, since the lateral branches on the trunk are very weak.
Pruning is important in the event of damage to the upper fruit bud, when two competing tops form on the trunk. Do not wait for their uniform development - the one that is weaker must be removed. On fruit shoots, it is recommended to pinch 2 buds each year.
Description of the features of the columnar apple species President
Two varieties of apples were used for crossing - Plentiful and Leader. Apple cultivator President bred by geneticist V.V. Kichina. Apple trees ripen quite late and are grown in the Black Earth and non-black-earth regions, the variety is especially widespread in the Moscow, Samara, Perm Region.
The columnar apple tree belongs to the semi-dwarf group, its height can reach 2 m. The compact crown, 20 cm wide, has dense foliage, thick shoots, middle scapes. Leaf plates are large, saturated green with a glint. Strong wood allows the apple to bear the weight of the fruit. The surface of the barrel contains collar and spear. Growth is 5-10 cm per year.
Fruits grow evenly throughout the trunk, at the level of 30-40 cm from the ground is the first tier. Apples are large, round, symmetrical shape, gaining a mass of 100-250 g. Light yellow color of fruits complemented by a blush of purple-red hue. The skin is taut, thin, with a brilliant sheen. Small stem. Inside the fruit is juicy white flesh with fine grains. Taste sweet-sour, characteristic pleasant aroma.
Fruiting variety is considered early and occurs after two years of growth, good survival rate is provided by a root system with a dense structure. Высокая зимостойкость, сопоставимая с показателем сорта Антоновка. Дерево продолжает плодоносить на протяжении 12-15 лет.
Описание плюсов и минусов сорта
Яблоня Президент имеет много преимуществ перед другими сортами:
- tall показатель продуктивности (около 16 кг),
- удобный малогабаритный размер,
- высокая зимостойкость,
- rapid onset of fruiting (2-3 years after planting),
- good survival rate
- decorative, aesthetic appearance,
- fragrant fruitpleasant taste
- low need for pruning due to the absence of branching,
- annual fruiting
- ability to form the ovary under bad weather conditions.
A columnar variety is not devoid of a couple of disadvantages:
- short fruitful period (up to 15 years),
- need for constant care.
Description of landing features
Adverse environmental conditions and the absence of pollinators do not prevent the fruiting of the columnar apple trees. It is better to place trees on heavily lit area, with breathable soil, sandy and loamy type. When planting in another soil, special preparation may be required:
- adding sand to peat soil
- introduction of clay or peat in sandy soil,
- adding peat or coarse sand to clay soil.
Trees are planted in rows at intervals of 50-60 cm. A gap of up to 90 cm remains between the rows. Groundwater, at the landing site, must be at a depth of 2 m. The required level of soil acidity is pH 5.5-7.0. Planting plants carried out in the middle of September or towards the end of April.
Saplings at the age of one year have a better survival rate than more mature planting material. Seedlings, devoid of foliage, without root flows and mechanical damage. The health of the tree can be checked by scraping a small patch of bark. The white color of wood is an indicator of quality apple trees. So that the seedling does not dry during transportation, its roots need cover with a wet cloth and a layer of cellophane.
Planting an apple tree includes the following steps:
- When planting in autumn, the pit must be prepared a month before the start of work. If the tree will be planted in the spring, the pit is prepared in the fall.
- Depth and width of the pit should be 90-100 cm to accommodate the bulk root system.
- Superphosphate (100 g), compost or humus (5 kg), potassium chloride or sulphate (50-70 g) is added to the surface layer of the soil. Additionally, if required, sand, clay, peat is added to the well.
- A fertile mixture of 2/3 volume is poured into the pit. Retreating 20 cm from the center of the pit, you need to put a peg. It will serve as a support for a seedling in a strong wind.
- The tree is planted in a hole, the roots are straightened and sprinkled with soil. The root neck should protrude 5 cm above the surface.
- A hole is created around the trunk, 10 cm deep and 30 cm in diameter, for irrigation. In the prepared recess pours 10-20 liters of water.
- The soil around the tree is covered with sawdust, peat, straw or humus.
- The barrel is tied with a twine or soft cloth to the peg.
Colonid Apple Care Description
In the first year it is desirable to break all emerging flowersso that the crop does not overload the young plant. This will enable the tree to concentrate all its forces on the rooting process and allow it to settle down better. The process of plant care also includes pruning, watering, feeding and providing protection in the winter.
Colony-shaped apple is required pruning in the following cases:
- The fruit bud at the top of the tree is damaged and two shoots are developed from it. Need to remove a less viable appendage.
- On the plant appeared gains from the sides. From the beginning of the spring of the first year, it is necessary to prune them to shoots with two buds.
- The tree is found damaged and intersecting branches.
Each branch, past pruning, will give two escape. Only one of them is left, located horizontally, the other is cut off to two buds. Horizontal growth gives fruit during the year, and a couple more branches are formed on the vertical one. Brought fruit shoots clean the next spring.
All other trimming procedures similar to actions with other varieties of apple trees. After 3-4 years, one ring of fruit links is removed. During this time, they completely exhaust their ability to bear fruit.
The level of pruning affects the rate of growth of new shoots. A half-shortened branch with 3-4 eyes forms the corresponding number of shoots in the future. A branch cut by a third may have 7-8 shoots. Proper pruning ensures the development of 2-3 lateral buds each year, gives a growth of 10-15 cm. The central shoot should not be cut, otherwise the tree will begin to branch.
Irrigation and fertilizer rules
Colony-Shaped Apple Roots close to the surfacespreading 25 cm from the surface of the trunk. Such a structure requires frequent watering for the plant. For this you need to make a groove for water in the ground, around the trunk. After watering, the excavation should be covered with a layer of soil and mulched with organic material.
Watering stop with the onset of August. At this time, the plant should stop growing and developing, preparing for the winter cold. Twice a month you need to carry out watering the crown of a hose. If the weather is dry with plenty of sun, then the plant must be watered every other day. In the cloudy period, one irrigation every three days is enough. On one tree requires 50 liters of water.
Top dressing of apple is carried out up to three times a year. Root fertilization is carried out in the period of foliage blooming, the procedure is repeated two weeks later and after 14-15 days after the second feeding. Fertilizer consists from urea (50 g) dissolved in a bucket of water. On one tree takes about 2 liters. Foliar nutrition begins at the end of the leaf formation phase and ends by mid-July. Urea is used for fertilizer diluted to a concentration of 0.1-0.2%.
Features of preparing the plant for winter
In autumn, the soil around the trunk must be dug up and cleaned of foliage. In October - November, with the help of rags or thick paper, the top of the apple tree is covered. To protect the trunk used lapnik or wood shavings. In the future, the base of the tree is spud with snow. The President variety has high rates of winter-hardiness, but severe cold can harm it, therefore it is advisable to cover the plant for the winter period.
Description of pests and diseases varieties President
If the columnar apple receives proper care, then the probability of the appearance of pests and various diseases is rather small. The plant can be subject to the following diseases:
- bacterial burn,
- milky shine
Scab is a coating of leaf plates and fruits. brownish spots small size. For treatment, a urea solution is used (500 g dissolved in ten liters of water). They cultivate the soil around the trunk and crown of the tree in the spring and autumn. Before beginning flowering and at the end of pruning the ovaries, the apple tree should be treated with copper chloroxide (dissolve 40 g of the substance in 10 liters of water). As a preventive measure, it is necessary to prune damaged branches.
With a bacterial burn leaves curl and turn black, fruits rot and wrinkle, and then begin to fall off. You can fight the disease by cutting off the infected branches and processing the cut points with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%) or garden warrior. If the defeat has reached a significant scale, it is impossible to do without tree uprooting. To prevent the occurrence of this disease, it is necessary to buy seedlings in proven specialized points of sale, use healthy material for planting.
Milky luster damage is characterized by a silver coating on the leaves and bark. Leaf plates lose their color, brown spots are formed on the trunk and branches. In the event of this disease, the damaged segments of the bark must be cut out and pour the cut point with pitch. Milky Gloss Prevention is in the alcohol treatment of garden tools for pruning, getting rid of pests.
With a dry top, the upper branches of the plant wither and begin to break off. Wood treatment with zinc sulfate helps (50 g of the substance is dissolved in 10 liters). Ensuring timely feeding prevents the problem.
The columnar apple species President can also affect various pests:
Flower destroys buds and the insides of the buds, and then lay eggs in them. As a result of gluing by the larvae of the petals, the flowers begin to dry and become brown. A month later, the larvae turn into beetles, bursting the surface of the buds. Young insects diverge throughout the site.
You can fight with the beetle by sprinkling the budding buds with Fufanon (dilute 10 ml in a bucket of water). During the appearance of buds, treatment is carried out with Inta-C-M (1 tablet per 10 l). For prevention, you need to clean the soil around the trunk of fallen autumn leaves.
The larvae of the suckling eater eat juice from the leaves, buds and buds of the columnar apple. Sticky substance sticks infected areas, inhibiting plant development. Fruits begin to deform, and with significant damage, the yield of the tree falls.
To eliminate pests during the development of buds, the plant must be treated with insecticides: Sumi-Alpha, Fas (dissolve 5 g in 10 liters), Mitak (dissolve 20 ml in 10 liters of water). Autumn harvesting of foliage will also help prevent infection.
Moth uses leafy plates and ovary to lay eggs. After 2-3 weeks, the caterpillars, eating the insides of the ovary, grow, causing it to fall. Yield fruit tree is reduced by half.
For processing, after 20 days since the shedding of flowers, drugs are used: Kinmiks (2.5 ml), Sumi-alpha (dilute 5 g in 10 l of water), Mitak (30-40 ml), Inta-vir (1 tablet), Biorin (10 ml). Preventive measures include the digging of soil near the trunk with the onset of autumn, cleaning of residual vegetation.
From the defeat of aphids leaves begin to turn yellow and curl, there is a curvature of the shoots. The plant affected by the parasite reduces the growth rate and does not tolerate the winter. Prior to flowering, the apple tree should be treated with Kinmiks, and after 15-20 days, apply the Inta-vir solution. Ants contribute to aphids, therefore, the fight against them will protect the plant from defeat.
Description of the rules for harvesting and storage
In late August, a period of ripening of apples begins, which continues until mid-September. A plant that receives regular grooming can produce 10–16 kg of fruit per year. Without any agrotechnical procedures, the tree brings 5-8 kg of apples per season. After 2-3 years after planting, the first crop can be obtained.
Optimal temperature for fruit storage is 0-2 degrees. For this purpose it is better to use the basement or cellar. Variety President can be stored until the last days of December, without losing their qualities. Apples are used as a raw product, as well as in the form of dried fruits, canned blanks, jam.
Description of the columnar apple variety President
Apple-tree President was bred as a result of crossing varieties Vodak and Abundant. Authorship belongs to the famous genetics and breeder Professor V. V. Kichin. Late variety. Recommended for cultivation in the territory of non-chernozem and black earth. Apple tree is widespread in the Perm, Samara and Moscow region.
Characteristic features of culture
- The president belongs to the group of semi-dwarf varieties. The height of the tree slightly exceeds 2 m.
- The krone also has a compact size, its width is 20 cm. The leaf content is strong. Shoots thickened. The leaf plates are large, dark green in color with a shiny surface. Stems of medium length.
- The apple tree has solid wood, so that the branches do not bend under the weight of the crop. The barrel is covered with spears and ringworms. The size of the increments reaches 5-10 cm per year.
- Fruits are evenly distributed over the entire surface of the trunk. The first tier is located at a height of 30-40 cm from the surface of the earth.
- Apples of large size - from 100 to 250 g, have a symmetrical round shape. They are painted in a light yellow color with a purple-red blush. The skin is shiny, thin, but relatively tight. The stem is short.
- The flesh is white, juicy with a fine-grained structure. Apples have a distinctive aroma and sweet-sour taste.
The peculiarity of the variety is earlier fruiting, which occurs 2 years after planting.. A dense root system provides a high survival rate of seedlings.
Winter hardiness varieties good. According to this indicator, the President is equated to Antonovka. Duration of fruiting tree is 12-15 years.
Important! In some sources, this variety can be found under the name of the columnar apple President, with the use of the same letter "n". However, this spelling is incorrect.
Variety President has the ability to bear fruit in adverse environmental conditions and without pollinators. Apple trees are recommended to be placed on a site that is well lit by the sun. The soil should be breathable. For this culture, suitable loamy or sandy soil. But with special training you can use other types of soil. When planting, peat soil is added to a pit by a bucket of sand, peat or clay is added to sand pit, and coarse sand or peat is introduced into clayey soil.
As a rule, columnar apple trees are planted in rows, between which they leave a space of 90 cm, and the trees themselves are placed 50–60 cm. For plants, they choose a place with groundwater at a level of 2 m from the surface. Soil acidity should be in the range of pH 5.5–7.0. Landing is carried out in the second half of April or mid-September.
Important! When growing clone-shaped apple trees it is recommended to use annual saplings, as they take root better than biennial plants.
The seedling must be selected without leaves, as well as without sagging on the roots and mechanical damage. To check whether the tree is healthy, you can perform the following procedure. You should scrape the bark layer and look at the color of the wood. A good plant will have a white color.
Important! In the process of transporting the roots need to be wrapped with a damp cloth and cellophane. This will prevent the seedling from drying out.
Apple planting President is carried out in loam or sandy soil
The landing process has the following features:
- The preparation of the pit begins a month during the autumn planting and autumn, if the tree is planted in the spring.
- Despite the fact that the size of the columnar apple is quite compact, it has a well-developed root system. Therefore, a hole is dug for the tree with a width and depth of 90–100 cm.
- The topsoil is mixed with 5 kg of humus or compost, 100 g of superphosphate and 50–70 g of sulphate or potassium chloride. If necessary, add clay, sand or peat to the well.
- Then the pit 2/3 fill with fertile composition. In the hole, at a distance of 20 cm from the center, it is desirable to install a peg that the seedling will hold for the first two years during strong gusts of wind.
- Then a tree is placed in the pit, the roots are straightened and covered with soil. The apple tree is sunk so that the root neck is 5 cm above the surface.
- At the final stage, the apple tree needs to be watered. To do this, prepare a well around the trunk with a diameter of 30 cm and a depth of 10 cm and pour 10–20 liters of water into it.
- After that, the soil is covered with a layer of straw, sawdust, humus or peat.
- The plant is tied to a peg with a soft cloth or twine. The wire for this purpose should not be used, because it can damage the seedling.
In order to avoid overloading the apple tree with a crop, it is recommended to cut off all the flowers during the first year. As a result of this procedure, the tree will direct the main forces to rooting, which will increase its survival rate. You should also pay attention to such measures of care as watering, pruning, feeding the tree and protection in the winter.
Nuances of colony tree forming
Pruning Apple is done in several cases:
- When the upper fruit bud is damaged, the tree begins to develop two upper shoots. In this situation it is necessary to remove the weaker ones.
- Also pruning is done if the apple tree gives lateral growths. In the first year at the beginning of the spring period, they are shortened to the level of two buds.
- In addition, eliminate overlapping and damaged branches.
In the future, two escapes will be formed from each cut branch. Of these, you must leave the one that occupies a horizontal position. The second is cut at the level of two kidneys. Fruits will form on the horizontal increase this year, and two branches on the vertical. The following season, spring sprouts are harvested.
The rest of the pruning is carried out in a similar manner. Fruit links are removed on the ring every 3-4 years. It is during this period that apples are formed on them. Then the links lose their ability to bear fruit.
The intensity of the growth of shoots depends on the level of pruning. If a branch is shortened by half the length, 3-4 eyes will remain on it. Of them in the subsequent will be formed the same number of shoots. If you cut a third of a branch, then the number of branches will reach 7–8 pieces. With proper pruning on the apple tree, two or three lateral buds are formed annually, and the increment is 10–15 cm.
Important! In a columnar apple, it is not recommended to prune the central shoot, since this will lead to the branching of the tree.
Этот вид яблони нуждается в частом поливе, что обусловлено строением корневой системы растений. Она имеет поверхностное расположение и размещается в пределах 25 см от ствола.For irrigation, a groove is dug around the tree, which, after the procedure is completed, is covered with soil and is mulched with organic material.
Humidification is carried out until August. Then the procedure must be stopped so that before the winter period the tree stops its growth and the formation of buds. Also it is necessary to water a tree crown twice a month.
Protecting Apple "President" from the cold
Some summer residents are firmly convinced that winter-hardy varieties do not need shelters for the winter, and in the spring they are disappointed when they see plants damaged by frost. Such a mistake is completely unjustified. Young seedlings up to the age of five are equally sensitive to low temperatures, so they risk not overwintering without human intervention.
For wintering, it is enough to mulch the tree circles with a 10-centimeter layer of any mulch, with the exception of coniferous. And also wrap the root of the tree with thick cloth. The trunk must be protected with a spruce or half-meter sheet of roofing felts. This is done to protect the apple trees from hungry hares and other rodents.
Features breeding varieties
Nursery specialists propagate shtambovye apple trees by budding, but they confess that the method is not easy, because on the vertical trunk it is problematic to get petioles for reproduction. Based on the fact that there are practically no lateral growths on it, professional gardeners resort to heavy cutting of the trunk. This nuance contributes to the intensification of branch extensions. Up to 15 shoots appear on each uterine specimen.
At home, you can get the desired shtamb by grafting cuttings of the sort you like on an ordinary apple tree. From its crown a vertical branch densely hung with fruits will stand out.
Crown-shaped apple "President": the advantages and disadvantages of the variety
If we compare miniature semi-dwarf apple trees of standard types with sprawling tall fellows, without much effort, you can find many beneficial differences. From the responses of gardeners and professional gardeners, the conclusion is that the apple “President” has the following qualities of the variety:
- neat compact crown of small size, which is convenient for cultivation in small private plots, as well as during harvesting,
- early and abundant fruiting, accompanied by stability for 15 years,
- decorative trees
- resistance to low temperatures, immunity to diseases and pests,
- transportability and keeping quality of fruits,
- high taste and commodity qualities of apples,
- the undemanding nature of the tree to the soil and the conditions of cultivation, ease of care.
Celled Apple Tree President
A variety of columnar apple President was created more than four decades ago, remarkable breeder V.V. Kichin, the method of crossing varieties of abundant and vazhak.
We zoned it in 2002 and since then it has been widely distributed in gardens and cottages. Variety President Apple tree, description and characteristics below.
Categorized semi-dwarf trees reaching a height of about 2 m.
Coloniform apple tree President variety description:
Fruit, begin to develop at 30 cm from the ground and appear early due to the early type of fruiting culture.
Trunkresembling the shape of a column is densely covered with reproductive shoots in the form of rings and a spear.
According to the characteristics wood the apple tree is hard enough that it does not allow it to bend even under a large crop.
Have fruit formations life expectancy varies up to 15 years with adequate plant care.
Below is a photo of a columnar apple for you President.
Sizes of an adult tree
See, look like an apple-tree colonized President photo description:
Apple variety President.
The shortened internodes enable the leaves to be located at close distances to each other, forming a dense green column that reaches a height rarely exceeding two meters.
And since the lateral shoots emerge from the trunk at an acute angle, the crown forms a very compact, extending from the trunk only 15-20 cm.
The frequency of fruiting
The harvest is regular, although it sometimes varies by year.
Usually it is about 8 kg of apples.
With good soil conditions and adequate care yield rises to 10-12 kg.
If the agricultural background is maintained constantly, then the yield can reach up to 16 kg from a tree.
Resistance to cold is comparable with Antonovka and Melba. Considered winter hardy. But still young trees must be prepared for the winter cold.
To do this, prepare the shelter of the conifer or straw, after protecting the trunk from rodents. In a more temperate climate in the first two years, it is recommended to wrap the trunk in three layers with a covering, dense material.
The apples are large enough for such a small tree. On average, 200 g - flattened, resembling the shape of a turnip.
Fruits are yellow - white and have pink blush of a very attractive appearance.
Have a thin brilliant, but essentially dense skin.
Fine-grained creamy pulp surprises dessert flavor, pronounced aroma and tasting score of 4, 8 - 5 points.
- No side branching
- Early entry into fruiting,
- Decorative and compact wood,
- Convenience of harvesting,
- Good survival during transplantation,
- High for this type of harvest and excellent taste of apples,
- Average level of winter hardiness
- Tolerant to diseases and pests.
The distance between the seedlings when planting
Colonic culture maintains well thickened planting.
Begin to prepare the seat need to plan.
Scheme is correct layouts for a columnar hybrid, the President must be - 60 cm between plants and rows of 100.
Of course, if you plant only 2-3 trees, the distance between the rows does not play a special role.
In agrotechnical measures for the cultivation of this culture a special place is given to watering and feeding.
The ideal option is considered drip watering. But in the absence of such, ordinary watering is required.
If the weather is very hot, then the plant needs a bucket of water, and a mature tree already two, every couple of days.
A good helper in this case is considered mulchwhich is able to retain moisture for a long time and protect surface tender roots from strong heat from the sun.
As with any varietal crop, during the growing season, the apple tree almost completely depletes the soil from trace elements. Therefore, requires periodic replenishment.
To yield was on a level with the arrival of spring in the near-stem circle are entered:
- Urea - 60 g,
- Mineral nitrogen - phosphorus - potassium fertilizer (nitroammofoska) - 5 g,
- Good rotted humus - 1 bucket,
They can just pour and pour or prikopat in the soil.
Colony apple planting and care.
Trimming and shaping
Strong pruning is not required. In the first year more sanitarythan forming. Two shoots are cut side shoots, so as not to spoil the appearance of decorative plants. Also, these shoots require quite a few power supplywhich is necessary for future harvest.
For this hybrid, related pollinators not required.
He is self-pollinated.
Still, experienced gardeners recommend planting other varieties for better pollination.
Features of cultivation in the regions
Wide Spread This hybrid received in Moscow and Moscow region. It can also be found in the Saratov Region, in the Non-Black Earth Region and the Black Earth Region of Russia.
Cultivation of a columnar apple.
As for the Urals and Siberia, because of the lack of heat and winters that are too harsh, growing this crop is not profitable. Surface root system freezes out. Does not stand frost and the tree itself. Although some lovers of such an apple tree are grown in the Urals.
Some gardeners successfully grow an apple variety President in large tubs, which are brought to a warmer place when winter comes.
Colony Apple President, gardeners reviews:
Watch the video about the brand President:
Watch the video of the gardeners board, how apple pruning should be done. President:
Look at the video story of gardeners about apple-shaped apple trees. Medoc and President:
Look at the video of the experts on how to grow an apple tree President:
You should not expect tons of apples from him. But decorative, compact, give the garden a wonderful image.