The genus Pandanus belongs to the Pandanov family, whose representatives are distributed mainly in the tropics of the Eastern Hemisphere. And the place of appearance of the Pandanus proper is Seychelles, Mauritius and Madagascar, from where these plants spread to other tropical zones.
Trees of these species grow large mangrove groves on the coasts and marshes. Large foliage of plants is used by local residents in everyday life as a material for roofs, boats, and carpets, thanks to which one of the species is called Pandanus Roofing, which can also be grown as a indoor culture.
In some species, edible fruits and inhabitants of the tropics apply them as seasonings. But you don’t need to try the fruits yourself, as they are poisonous in some species. The remaining parts of the plant are not poisonous, but their leaves have sharp thorns that are dangerous for children, this should be taken into account when placing the plant in an apartment.
Types of Pandanus
At home, it is quite problematic to determine the type of pandanus, since for many of them the main difference is the structure of the flower, and in the room these trees do not bloom.
Most often to decorate our rooms are grown Pandanus veycha. This evergreen handsome man has a shortened shoot with hanging aerial roots, which eventually become the main support of the tree, since its lower part dies.
The foliage of this type is placed next to the alignment, is pressed one to one at the base, can reach almost one meter length. This species is variegated - the center of its leaf is green, and the edges with white stripes. With long-term cultivation in room conditions up to one and a half meters tall.
Another species often cultivated by gardeners is Pandanus usefulwhich has an impressive height. In the house this tree grows up to 2 meters, its foliage is very long, sometimes up to one and a half meters. Like other species, when home grown does not bloom.
Pandanus sander Came to us from the Malay Islands. It has a short stem, foliage a little less than a meter, its edges are covered with small thorns, also has a variegated appearance with stripes of yellow color.
Another type Pandanus the Most Fragrant. The habitat of wild habitats covers in the Main India. The name, as you might guess, comes from the strong and pleasant smell of orange flowers.
There are also low pandanus species that grow a little over half a meter (Dwarf Pandanus, Sedge).
Although in wild form, pandanus grows in very humid conditions, but when grown indoors, its aerial roots are not so well developed and there is a danger of rot with excess moisture.
By virtue of this, watering the plant needs to ensure that the upper ball of the earth dries out, but the soil as a whole does not dry out. To do this, one watering per week in summer and one for 14 days in winter will suffice. Water for irrigation should be used warm, soft, defended.
These plants are characterized by the need for high humidity, so they need to be sprayed. This is done necessarily spray, so that the water does not remain in the axils of the foliage.
Fertilizer for pandanus
In spring and summer, the tree needs fertilizer. In order for Pandanus to grow well, it will be sufficiently complex feeding once every 15 days.
When the plant becomes an adult and a large growth can begin to interfere, feeding can be reduced.
Although this occupation is also problematic because of the thorns, the foliage of the plant must sometimes be wiped with a damp cloth.
Children who appear abundantly near the trunk and it is strongly not recommended to cut aerial roots. But the drying edges of the foliage should be cut off, but without touching the greenery.
Soil for pandanus
For planting plants should choose a light soil with weak acidity. For its preparation, clay and greenhouse earth, peat and sand are mixed in a ratio of 1: 2: 1: 1.
Buying a ready substrate, it is better to pay attention to the soil for palm trees. It is also important not to forget about the drainage, which is made of expanded clay.
Pandanus Veitch or Wichi (Pandanus Veithii)
This is a very spectacular ornamental plant. A young plant is similar to a grassy one, but then it grows and reaches a height of 150 centimeters. Its leathery, narrow, belt-shaped leaves are painted in dark green color and have a longitudinal whitish strip at the edges. In length, these leaves can reach 100 centimeters. After such a pandanus turns 8-10 years old, he is unlikely to fit in an ordinary apartment.
Pandanus Sander (Pandanus sanderi)
It is also very often used to decorate spacious and high rooms. Its shiny glossy leaves are painted in dark green color, and along the edge they have narrow longitudinal stripes of yellow color. Also on the edge are small spikes. In length, the leaves can reach 80 centimeters, and in width - 5 centimeters.
Feels great in a shaded and well-lit place. If there is little light, the stripes located on the foliage become less noticeable. Over time, when the plant becomes larger, it has to be transported deep into the room from the window sill, but it successfully adapts to the change of lighting. However, experienced growers recommend, in order to avoid distortion of the trunk, regularly turn the flower pot.
Feels great at normal room temperature. In winter, do not allow the temperature in the room to drop below 16 degrees. Cold drafts are not recommended for Pandanus, however often very beautiful and completely healthy plants can be found in lobbies or halls.
There are no special requirements for air humidity. When growing under room conditions, it is not recommended to moisten the leaves of the dispenser, as the liquid may remain in the sinuses and cause the formation of rot on the stem. For hygienic purposes, it is recommended to systematically wipe foliage with a damp cloth and do it carefully, not forgetting the spikes.
How to water
In the warm season, watering is plentiful, since a large number of long leaves quickly evaporate water. For watering use tepid water (about 30 degrees). In the autumn and winter, watering is significantly reduced, as the growth of the pandanus stops. Water less so the colder the room.
Feed up only during intensive growth 1 time in 2 weeks. To do this, use complex fertilizer for deciduous plants.
How to transplant
This plant due to sensitive roots does not tolerate the transplant. Young plants once a year in the spring time gently rolled from pot to pot. An adult pandanus is transplanted only if necessary, when it ceases to fit in the pot, and the air roots should not be buried in the soil.
The pot should be voluminous, approximately equal in height and width, and very heavy in order to prevent the plant from falling.
You can easily propagate the daughter plants, appearing in large numbers on the adult pandanus. When the socket grows to 20 centimeters, it can be carefully separated from the adult plant and planted separately.
Suitable for breeding and grafting. Cut the stalk from the side of the shoot. Slices need to be treated with charcoal and dry a little. Sand and peat mixed together are suitable for rooting. The handle must be kept warm, while covered with film or glass. It will take root in about 4–8 weeks.
Pandanus, or the helical palm, is one of those rare indoor plants, the care of which does not present any difficulties. The only problem associated with the cultivation of this flower is its size. Pandanus is growing rapidly and in 3-4 years a powerful specimen with long prickly leaves that does not fit on the window sill grows from a cute little sprout.
Pandanus is ideal for landscaping halls, lobbies of public institutions, greenhouses, winter gardens, where it will look great and will not hurt anyone.
Young plants do not like direct sunlight and do not tolerate a lack of light. Like most indoor flowers, pandanus is suitable for windows facing west or east. In bright but diffused light, its leaves will have an attractive bright color. In the northern latitudes and in the middle zone in winter, the plant has to be illuminated for several hours a day.
Once a week, the pot should be rotated around its axis by 45 degrees. This will help the plant grow from all sides, evenly overgrown with leaves. To carry out the pandanus on the balcony in the summer is not worth it, because in the open air it will start to grow much faster.
Despite the spines on the leaves, they will have to be regularly taken care of, dusting them. It is easier to do this with a damp cloth or sponge, wearing thin cloth gloves so as not to scratch your hands. A small plant can be watered once a week with warm water from the shower, washing away the dust.
Pandanus naturally has dark shiny leaves. They do not need to sprinkle with vegetable polish. But it is still better to treat the flower with an aerosol for shine from time to time, as there is an antistatic in the composition of these products, thanks to which dust on the leaves does not accumulate much longer. Treated leaves rarely have to wipe, which is important, given their thorniness and thickness. Only adults and old leaves are sprayed, trying not to fall on the trunk and the bottom surface of the plates. Instead of the purchase of polishes sometimes use beer mixed with water in a 1: 1 ratio.
In the wild, pandanus grows in the humid tropics, so he loves moisture in his apartment. In summer, the flower is watered abundantly, since the long leaves of the pandanus evaporate a lot of water and the earth dries quickly. When the air temperature drops, the leaves reduce evaporation, and if watering is still intense, the roots may rot. To prevent this from happening, in winter the plant is watered only after the topsoil has dried out.
For irrigation use distilled tap water. Occasionally, the top watering is replaced by the bottom, pouring water into the pan. In this case, the plant takes water as much as necessary. Regular use of lower watering is not recommended, as the pandanus will quickly grow roots and it will require transplanting.
Top dressing is needed only during the period of active growth - in spring and summer. Use a complex mineral or organic fertilizer for indoor flowers or a special fertilizer for palm trees ("Agricola" for palm trees, "Criston", etc.). Feeding is carried out every 2-3 weeks.
Pandanus can safely be left at home, leaving for several weeks. The plant will tolerate a great lack of watering and other care. The young copy is removed from the window sill so that it does not dry out in the sun. Large plants in tubs, located on the floor, leave in the same place. Before leaving, indoor plants are well watered. If the trip is planned for a long time, you will have to ask your neighbors or relatives to visit the apartment every two weeks and water the screw palm.
In landscape design use low types of pandanus, up to 60 cm high, - dwarf and sedge. In the winter they are transplanted from a flower bed to a pot and transferred to a warm room. Dwarf suitable for permanent maintenance in the house. Its leaves are narrower than those of other species, so it is more like other dragon flowers than other pandanuses. Care at home he needs the same as the other species.
Why do the leaves turn yellow?
Pandanus is a very hardy plant. It is practically not damaged by diseases and pests. In exceptional cases, scutes and false shields may appear on it, which are disposed of with the help of Aktellika. Treatments are repeated at intervals of 3 days, 2-4 sprays are sufficient. Single pests are removed from the sheet with a cotton swab dipped in vodka.
Too dry air can cause the tips of the leaves to dry and turn brown. Despite its tropical origin, the palm tree does not need high humidity, but in winter, when central heating works, it will be grateful for the daily spraying - this will help protect the tips of the leaves from drying out.
Yellow leaves due to lack of nutrition. Like any fast-growing plant, pandanus needs high doses of fertilizer. Regular feeding in spring and summer and keeping the soil in a moderately wet state will allow the leaves to stay green and healthy at any time of the year.
Variegated varieties lose their brightness, and new leaves grow small? This is due to a lack of light. In winter, the plant is better to rearrange the south window. Due to an excess of light, the leaves become whitish. Leaves can also turn white due to hard water with high calcium content.
Pandanus can be called the king of the winter garden. This is a great tapeworm. In the open, the plant is transformed and looks luxurious and majestic. A helical palm never bends toward sunlight, even if there is not enough light. It will always be slim and straight, only the foliage on the sunny side will be more dense. The plant is kept in the room until about the age of ten, and then it is better to find more suitable conditions for it.
So, care for pandanus does not cause difficulties. Plants are unpretentious, hardy, survive in darkened halls and lobbies, away from windows, on walking drafts. Pandanus is worth having, if you need a fast-growing unpretentious indoor flower, the appearance resembling dracaena, yucca or palm.
What is interesting plant?
The genus consists of 600 species. Most of the representatives are tall tree plants. There are instances of 15 meters or more. Sometimes form voluminous shrubs. Despite the resemblance, it is not a palm tree - Pandanus has nothing to do with it.
As a support and means for obtaining moisture, they release long aerial roots. An interesting sight is represented by plants with dead dead part of the trunk. They are held above ground in aerial roots.
The shape of the leaves is xiphoid, the edges are pointed. On the stem are attached in a spiral. Lower leaves gradually fall off, leave scars on the stem. The barrel takes the form of a screw. Flowers small, yellowish, form dense inflorescences.
As a houseplant, pandanus is more suitable for spacious apartments. It grows very quickly, tolerates dry air, easily tolerates a short-term lack of irrigation and low light.
Varieties for growing in the apartment
Of the 600 species found in nature, only a few are suitable for home cultivation. They have a more compact size - do not grow above 3 meters.
- Pandanus Weitch Trunk shortened. It produces a lot of aerial roots. The leaves grow spirally, close to each other. The length of the leaves - up to 80-90 cm. The color is intense, green. Light stripes go longitudinally. Characterized by the presence of thorns on the edge of the sheet. Compact variety - grows on average up to one and a half meters.
- Pandanus is useful. Higher view. It grows up to 2-3 meters. Leaves are straight, branched, grow in a spiral. Color - saturated green. Long - up to 1.5 meters. On the edge of the sheet are spikes of red hue.
- Pandanus Sander Trunk shortened. Leaves up to 80 cm. Background - green, stripes - yellow. The edges of the leaves are covered with small thorns.
Creating an enabling environment and care
Pandanus is unpretentious. Creating special conditions for its cultivation is not required. On the enhanced care responds with rapid growth and high decoration.
- Lighting. Will grow anywhere - in the sun or in partial shade. Variegated species in the shadow do not put - the characteristic color becomes faded. At a young age, grown on the windowsill. Adult plants are placed in tubs on the floor, if possible closer to the window. To avoid the curvature of the stem, the flower is regularly turned around its axis.
- Temperature. Temperature range - 20-25 ° C. In winter, do not allow a drop below 16 ° C. Try to avoid drafts.
- Humidity. Does not play a special role. It grows both at low and at high humidity. Spraying is not advised. Water accumulates in the sinuses, leads to rotting of the stem. For hygienic purposes, wipe the foliage with a damp sponge.
- Watering. A large mass of leaves requires enhanced watering. Water temperature - 30 ° C. In winter, the growth of pandanus stops - water less often. The frequency depends on the temperature. The lower it is, the less watering it is.
- Feeding. Any fertilizer is suitable for leafy crops. Observe the dosage and concentration indicated in the instructions. Frequency - 2 times per month. It is not recommended to apply fertilizer on dry ground. Optimally - on the day of watering.
- Transfer. The root system is sensitive, vulnerable. To transplant resort in extreme cases, replace it with transshipment. Young copies have to be handled annually due to rapid growth. Взрослые — при необходимости замены горшка. Воздушные корни оставляют снаружи. Емкости используют тяжелые, устойчивые, примерно одинаковой ширины и высоты.
- Почва. Используют питательные грунты с высоким содержанием минеральных веществ. Подходят почвенные смеси для пальм. In the soil for adult plants, sod land should prevail.
Temperature and lighting
Without exception, all types of pandanus are light-requiring, but this does not mean that they can be placed in direct sun. Much more useful will be diffused light! It is worth noting that home pandanus grows well even in partial shade. But variegated forms, for example, Veitch's pandanus, retain their color only in the presence of natural, stable lighting. Usually large specimens are placed on the floor, and medium and small ones on shelves and cabinets.
Moving a pot with a weighty flower is difficult, but miniature specimens will not mind spending the summer on the balcony. It is important to remember that thermophilic pandanuses do not tolerate a strong lowering of temperatures. The minimum comfortable temperature for them is 13 degrees, the lower ones exclude watering and can harm the plant, despite its unpretentiousness.
Watering and moisture
For flower pandanus care involves regular watering. He is patient in the absence of moisture, but, like most plants, overflows poorly. During the period of growth, under the condition of warm content, watering may be moderate or abundant, depending on the condition of the topsoil. When growth stops, watering is attempted to be reduced, as the need for water decreases. This exotic has no requirements for air humidity: it can successfully grow even with minimal indicators.
When watering is not worth pouring water into twisted spirals of leaves. There moisture is delayed, and may cause rotting of the outer part. 8 questions about watering.
Fertilizers and fertilizing
The pandanus does not need any special dressings. He may well be content with occasional fertilizer with complex mixtures for hardwood, with a predominance of nitrogen. While the excess of trace elements is likely to harm!
Reproduction and transplanting
The pandanus plant, whose care involves periodic transplantation, often grows to impressive size even in indoor conditions. If the support roots are underdeveloped, it can lean under the weight of the crown. Therefore, when choosing a pot, you should give preference to sustainable options. For convenience, you can put a pot on a stand with wheels.
Pandanus grows slowly, because often it will not have to replant. Annual transplanting is needed only for newly rooted cuttings, and then - as they grow.
A mistake is a deep planting with the deepening of aerial roots, which are formed at the base of the trunk. When planting, they must remain outside, and to conserve moisture, they are wrapped in wet moss, or sprayed more often.
When preparing the substrate can be limited to several components: sand, or any other baking powder, peat and garden humus. The earth mixture must be sufficiently loose and not “clogged”, but breathable.
At home, pandanus is best reproduced by cuttings, or daughter rosettes, which are formed on the stem. They are cut, allowed to dry slightly and rooted in water, after powdering the cut with coal, or phytosporin. The cutting of the cutting is immersed in water to a depth of no more than 1-2 cm. For successful rooting, the temperature is not lower than 20-25 degrees. Cuttings with roots can be planted in light soil, as you grow, adding more nourishing earth.
You can root the cuttings immediately in the ground, deepening them lightly and placing them on a support in the greenhouse from the package in a place protected from the sun. Watering should be cautious, without waterlogging until the roots.
Although pandanus can be safely called one of the easiest to care colors, even in its content you can face difficulties.
If the lower old leaves turn yellow, you do not need to worry. Dying off the old foliage is a natural process! But the rapid yellowing of the lower, or even the upper leaflets - can be a dangerous signal. About what? First of all, about the violation of conditions of detention, most often, the irrigation regime. As mentioned above, pandanus can survive a temporary drought, but it is difficult to tolerate an excess of moisture. Also, the reason for the withering of the leaves may be a shortage of free space: if there is no free ground left in the pot, he has no place to take the strength to grow foliage. For large specimens, you can fill this deficit with the help of dressings.
It is not necessary to exclude pests, which sometimes choose their victim pandanus. Its leafy sockets attract a mealybug and spider mite. How to recognize them, read here.
- If a pandanus has brown spots on the leaves ...
Brown spots on the leaves are also the result of systematically over-wetting the soil. If the spots are dry and isolated, this may be due to a mechanical injury, or sunburn. By the way, unaccustomed to the sun copies can fade very much under direct rays!
Spots may indicate the presence of pests, or the presence of disease. In the latter case, the nature of the spots is different: they grow, have a border, or bloom, while the leaves lose their turgor and become sluggish.
- If the pandanus has dry leaf tips ...
This is often observed in newly planted plants that have not yet adapted to new conditions. The cause may be stuffiness, or intense heat, irregular watering, again, pests. With a strong desiccation of the earthy coma during the period of growth, the tops of the leaves may wish to die. Therefore, do not disregard Pandanus for a long time! Dry tips can be carefully trimmed with scissors so that they do not spoil the appearance of the plant.
Now you have met with a representative of tropical exotic. Be sure to try to grow pandanus care for which is not difficult.
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Pandanus grows fairly quickly, and a few years after planting, it appears a lot of aerial roots, which also enhances growth, and this in turn affects the frequency of transplantation.
Young plants will have to be replanted about once a year, more often to carry out this procedure, even if there is a desire, you should not. For adults, this process is applied once every three years. Most often use the method of transshipment.
New capacity is chosen a little more than the root. It is better not to take an oversized tub because the likelihood of soil souring increases, which threatens to rot the rhizomes.
If your tree is already very large, and you want to limit its growth, transplants are stopped, but simply change the top balls of the substrate in the tub. Transplantation of an adult plant alone is a problem and it is easier to perform it together.
If you need to leave, then you should not be afraid for your pet. Pandanus will survive your absence without harm. Before leaving, you need to spend a good watering and set aside the pot from the window. If your absence will be quite long, then the tub with the plant is better to put in a container with expanded clay, and also put the latter on top of the ground.
Reproduction of pandanus processes
Most often to propagate pandanus, rooted his children. A material is cut from the trunk, on which small roots have already formed a couple centimeters in size. In case of need, there is an opportunity to make the roots form faster, you just need to wrap the bottom or processes with raw sphagnum. Also, to stimulate the emergence of roots, you can dip the processes in the water.
After separation from the mother plant, shoots are dried during the day and planted in light and nutritious soil, which can be made from sand and peat. After landing, the baby is covered with a film to maintain high humidity and kept at a temperature of about 23 ° C, sprinkling from time to time. With rooting the film is removed.
Having this procedure in the spring, you can achieve good results.
Pandanus breeding cuttings
Also, if your pandanus releases side shoots, it can be propagated by cutting.
The material must be dried, and the cut point should be powdered with activated charcoal. Planted cuttings, in the same way as the kids - in a mixture of sand and peat, covered with foil.
Diseases and pests
Under the conditions of care, pandanus almost does not cause any problems.
- If the room is too dry air or there is a lack of moisture in the soil, then it leaves will drystarting at the tips.
- With aging lower foliage will fall off by itself, but if this happens quickly, then, most likely, the problem is a lack of moisture.
- Small foliage and lack of growth, the absence of white stripes in variegated species indicates a lack of light.
- If, on the contrary, it is too much, then foliage will become pale and burns on it. Also, whitening leaves can be a sign of watering with hard water.
- Yellowing foliage evidence of abnormalities in the root system. This is usually due to rot, appearing with excess moisture, low temperature and drafts. Yellowing of the foliage can also cause insufficient watering.
- The pandanus is almost not attacked by pests, and of those that may appear are excreted mealybug, spider mite and shield.
Pandanus is an evergreen perennial, in its natural environment it can reach more than 13 m in height. Houseplant rarely exceeds the height of 3 meters. Thick, dense roots go deep into the ground. It is noteworthy that the flower has not only underground, but also air rhizome.
Above the ground there is a smooth short trunk covered with light brown bark. It is almost completely hidden under the sessile leaves. The top is decorated with a spreading crown of many belt-like leaves. They grow along the stem in a spiral. Leaflets at the base fit snugly together. The leaf has a pronounced central vein and bright green color. The plate is 60–120 cm long, and 3–8 cm wide. On the sides of the leaf, as well as on the bottom along the central vein, there are short, but very sharp spines. They grow at an angle towards the edge of the sheet.
In a natural environment, spiral palm Pandanus produces flowers annually. On the same tree you can find male inflorescences in the shape of an ear and female cone-like flowers. As a result of pollination, large edible fruits, similar to a rounded pineapple, are formed. They have a pleasant sweetish taste and contain small seeds. Alas, it is almost impossible to achieve flowering of indoor pandan.
Palm tree at home
Some growers are afraid to start a pandanus at home. The reason for this is unfounded superstition. They say that with its prickles it attracts negative energy. However, even fans of spiritual practices do not confirm this version.
At home, the plant is used as a fodder crop, as well as for weaving baskets. Chewing a pandanus leaf, the locals get rid of a toothache. The only cause for concern are sharp spines, so the palm tree is not recommended to be placed in a place accessible to children.
Rules for caring for pandanus at home are simple. Even if the content is far from ideal, the plant looks good and grows in size. However, it will not differ in special beauty and large leaves. To achieve a sprawling crown, you should follow a few simple rules.
Pandanus needs a long light day and bright light, it can easily tolerate direct sunlight. The ideal place will be the eastern or western window sills. When there is a lack of light, the leaves lose their elasticity and begin to droop more strongly, and bright colors disappear from variegated forms. In the winter, with a short light day, bright lights should be used for 6-8 hours.
The optimum air temperature for an adult plant is + 22 ... + 25 ° C. Coolings below + 15 ° C are detrimental to it. For the summer, it is advisable to take the pandanus flower to fresh air, but protection against strong gusts of wind and cold air is required. Palma does not need an artificial decrease in temperature in winter.
Pandan is undemanding to air humidity. It responds well to wiping the leaves from dust and periodic spraying. Care for the palm must be careful not to get hurt about sharp thorns. When spraying or bathing, care must be taken to ensure that moisture does not linger in the leaf axils otherwise rot develops.
Pandanus needs to be plentiful and frequent watering, but between irrigation the soil should dry by half. Water for irrigation take purified and slightly acidified. Its temperature should be in the range of + 25 ... + 30 ° C. As cold weather reduces watering. Should focus on the state of the soil.
In March-October, the plant is fertilized with liquid mineral compounds for deciduous plants. Top dressing bring to the earth twice a month. They should be well diluted with water so as not to burn the rhizome.
Palm Pandanus has an excellent immunity to disease and parasites. In rare cases, on the plant can be found flail or worms. Effective insecticides (Aktara, Karbofos) help to quickly cope with insects.
It is hard to imagine proper care for pandanus without regular transplantation. At home, it is carried out infrequently, since the air and underground roots of the plant are rather fragile. Transplant the plant when the roots are completely covered with an earthen ball. The pot is chosen deep, several centimeters wider than the previous one. The drainage layer should be about a third of the tank. The soil for pandanus should be light and have a slightly acid reaction. It consists of:
- leafy soil
- turf soil,
- river sand.
The transfer is made by the method of transshipment. It is not worth much to deepen the palm tree. Aerial roots should remain on the surface. Care must be taken not to break them.