Peat is a common biological material that is very popular in garden plots. Many gardeners and farmers prefer this environmentally friendly material as fertilizer. Due to the peat dressings, the soil structure is improved. Such a natural top dressing will be more effective if it is supplemented with mineral and organic fertilizers. In addition, it can be done at home.
What is peat used in the garden?
To increase yield, it is recommended to fertilize the soil before planting in the garden. Many gardeners use for these purposes peat, which includes carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur.
Such an organic top dressing is very popular and at the same time available to everyone. The composition of peat includes plants and organisms that live on lakes and marshes, which die, forming biomass. Every year, these layers begin to overlap and are pressed, because the moisture level is elevated, and the air is not enough. Why do you need peat in the garden? This mineral fertilizer improves soil structure and increases yield.
Peat for the garden benefits from the following:
- the soil becomes porous and light, making water and air easier to penetrate to the roots of plants,
- it is a natural antiseptic that destroys pathogens, including harmful fungi and bacteria,
- when used together with other organic fertilizers feed poor and poor soil,
- if the acidity of the soil is reduced, then a correctly selected biomaterial normalizes this indicator,
- organic dressing contributes to the rapid warming of the soil, absorbs a large amount of moisture and retains nutrients,
- a vegetable garden substrate also benefits when there is a crust on the ground.
Peat can be harmful. This happens if poor-quality fertilizers were used or were incorrectly introduced into the ground. In this case, organic dressing will slow down and inhibit the growth of plants, and sometimes leads to their death.
Peat can be of different types, depending on the degree of decomposition of biomass.
Riding. This feed is characterized by high acidity and a small amount of nutrients. The resulting components differ in structure, because they did not have time to decompose to the desired state. The composition of this type of peat includes sphagnum mosses, wild rosemary, cotton grass and other light herbs that grow in the swamps. This layer is usually used very rarely in a vegetable garden because it is not suitable as a fertilizer and is usually used for mulching.
Transition. This is a kind of peat layer between the lowland and upland species. The degree of decomposition of the components and, accordingly, the value of this type is much higher than in the first case. But the acidity of the medium is not enough to use in agriculture.
Lowland. This is the most optimal option, which is used as a fertilizer, since all components of the biomaterial are completely decomposed, the structure is uniform, and the medium is slightly acidic. The biomaterial composition is 50% represented by humus, which is the main indicator of soil fertility. But the presence of such a component does not guarantee that there will be a rich harvest from its use. Lowland peat is not sufficiently enriched with nutrients, therefore, it is combined with mineral and organic fertilizers to increase its value.
Organic matter selection
Peat deposits are usually located in wetlands. For the extraction of peat on an industrial scale using special equipment and technology. But the stock of biomaterial can be done independently. To get a small amount of fertilizer at home, you will need a regular spade. First you need to remove the top layer of the earth. Reaching the peat, it must be cut with a sharp shovel. The resulting material should be dried and used on the site.
Peat as a fertilizer can be bought in the store. There is a wide selection of biomaterials available..
- Granules. Prepare them using organic and mineral components, as well as lime and binding elements. Nutrients from peat during preparation acquire readily available forms, and the solubility of this fertilizer is not too high, resulting in a metered supply of all necessary substances. Pellets should be added immediately before planting crops in the well.
- Liquid humic. In their composition they contain humates, which are the most digestible forms of batteries. This allows the use of such fertilizer from peat for foliar dressings. During production, such compounds are enriched with organic matter, which increases the value of feeding. In addition, humic fertilizers from peat are used as a growth stimulator for soaking crops before sowing.
Using peat as a fertilizer on site
Biomaterial has some distinctive features. It is heat and water-absorbing, and is characterized by a weakly acidic environment. Using it on a garden plot, you must follow certain rules.
- Before using the substrate, it must be thoroughly ventilated, because in its original form it contains a large amount of substances that can have a toxic effect on plants. To do this, lay down a low pile of biomaterial in a place that will be well ventilated.
- It is necessary to monitor the moisture content of the biomaterial, which should not be below 50%. This is very important because the dried substrate is wetted very badly, unable to retain moisture inside, and the process of its decomposition slows down considerably.
- It must be remembered that, as such, peat is completely useless on fertile soils. It is intended for depleted soils, clayey or, on the contrary, sandy types.
- This organic supplement exerts its effect for 2 to 3 years. The greatest effect of its use is observed in the second year.
- It is possible to use fertilizers containing peat both in spring and in autumn. At the same time, biomass should be embedded in the soil to a depth of 25–30 cm. The consumption rate, depending on the crop, is on average 10 kg / m2.
- If the soil is weakly acidic, the use of peat without neutralizing it leads to a deterioration of its physiological properties. For liming, it is recommended to use defecate, dolomite flour, fluff and other ameliorants containing lime.
How to determine the acidity of peat? To do this, use the usual litmus paper or a few leaves of cherry or black currant pour boiling water, adding a piece of peat in the cooled solution. The appeared red color indicates that the medium is strongly acidic, if it is blue, it is slightly acidic, and green indicates neutral. It helps to navigate with the components that are added to the preparation of compost.
How to fertilize peat flowers?
Peat is an excellent fertilizer for flowers. To extract all the useful qualities of the biomaterial, as well as not to harm the flowers, it is necessary mix with sand and black soil. Thanks to this mixture, the plants start to bloom very lush. Such soil is usually used in flower shops for long-term storage of flowers, it does not harm them, but on the contrary, provides them with good growth and development.
Thus, peat is a very valuable product, which is produced by nature itself. But, like other minerals, it is recommended to refine it to get the maximum benefit from the application. Many people think that peat does not impair the physiological properties of the soil, but it is not. Its improper use can be harmful, so you need to carefully treat its features.
Use in the greenhouse
Peat has a large absorption capacity, and it is this property that makes it indispensable for use in greenhouses, where the increased humidity of the air is constantly maintained. It absorbs its surplus, and keeps it in its micropores, and when the need for a liquid arises, the roots of plants always have access to it. The use of peat as a fertilizer in the greenhouse can reduce the content of pathogens in the soil. In a closed space, this property is especially important.
For the abundant fruiting of crops in protected ground, it must be updated annually. Fertilizing the land with peat in this case is the best option. Its content in the soil can reach 70% of the total composition, subject to the additional use of other fertilizers, both organic and mineral.
Recipe peat soil for greenhouses:
- Garden land - 40%
- Lowland peat - 40%,
- Cow dung - 10%
- Ash - 5%,
- Sawdust -5%.
The cheapest way to enrich peat with useful elements is to make compost out of it. To do this, take the tops of garden plants, mugs, nettles, and other weeds (except for field bindweed). The stems and leaves of some flowers can also be added to this pile - lupine (siderat, rich in nitrogen), chamomile (garden, drug), chrysanthemums. In no case can you use a delphinium, castor oil, spurge, and garden iris, despite the large amount of tops that can be obtained from these plants. They are poisonous, and in a decomposed state, toxic substances contained in their flowers, roots and leaves can become compost.
For the production of fertilizers from peat, it is necessary to allocate a plot of land located at a distance from residential buildings, since a bunch of rotting plants have a specific unpleasant odor.
Sawdust is taken as a basis, which is piled onto the ground with a layer of 20 cm. Then equivalent layers of earth and peat are laid on them. But the tops can be put and more, especially if it is pre-crushed.
Grass and tops are poured over with peat and earth again, and they are shed with a mullein extract or bird droppings. You can also use a solution of superphosphate, which is diluted in a proportion of 100 grams. on 10 l.
Making the compost pile too high is not recommended. The processes of decomposition will take place unevenly in it, therefore the maximum height of this structure is 1.5 - 2 meters. Processing time - 1 - 1.5 years. Compost is considered ready when it has turned into a homogeneous crumbly mass.
What is useful peat?
- The soil that has been treated with this bog fertilizer becomes lighter, more porous, and it begins to better pass air and water to the roots of the plants.
- Peat-based fertilizers in combination with other organics perfectly feed the poor, infertile and depleted loamy and sandy soils.
- This fertilizer is a natural antiseptic, and helps to defeat the pathogens of the soil, including harmful bacteria and fungi.
- Peat, if necessary, increases the acidity of the soil.
The last of the above properties is one of the most important characteristics of this substrate, since it significantly affects the effectiveness of the applied fertilizers. If the pH level, which characterizes the degree of acidity, is lower than 4.8, then peat-based fertilizer with such a reaction cannot be used, it only hurts the plants. The optimum is a pH value of 2.3 - 3.5.
Attention:if peat is used incorrectly, it can suppress and slow down the growth of plants, and sometimes cause their complete destruction.
Using peat as a fertilizer, The following common mistakes should be avoided.You can not:
- Fertilize the land by continuous application.
- Use only peat, without other organic and mineral dressings.
- Take peat as a fertilizer. Benefit from it will not. This variety is used only for mulching.
- Apply peat on light loamy, sandy and fertile soils. Application of this organic fertilizer in this case will be useless.
Peat dung or black earth - which is better?
Peat substrate, due to its high absorbent properties, is often used as bedding for livestock. Together with the liquid, it absorbs a large amount of nutrients - ammonia, potassium, calcium, magnesium. Sour peat contains in its composition substances with an antibiotic effect, which helps it to simultaneously nourish and protect plants from disease-causing organisms.
Fertilizer from such litter is superior in its nutritional properties even to the “rested” black soil.. Peaty soil contains the same amount of nutrients as high-fertility soil rich in humus, but surpasses it in terms of protection from harmful microorganisms and in the quality of its structure.
You can manually distinguish these two substrates - take a handful in the palm of your hand, and squeeze firmly. The resulting lump should be left in the open air, until completely dry. The chernozem will remain wet much longer, and the peat will dry very quickly and will crumble in your hand.
But acquiring a "clean" peat to create a fertile layer on the site, you must be prepared for various troubles. It will have to be additionally fertilized for optimal results. The ideal soil for a vegetable garden is obtained by adding vermicultivated compost, sand and humus to the peat.
Do not forget about safety: It is better to perform the mixing procedure immediately after the shipment of this substrate to the garden plot, using, first of all, wet sand. It is especially important to observe this rule in the heat, since peat can self-ignite.
The cost of peat and black soil is approximately equal. It starts from the position of 150 p. per m³, and depends on the composition of the substrate, as well as the amount of fertilizer purchased.
Usually In this form, prepared organic supplements are produced. Fertilizers based on peat in liquid form are very convenient for use. They immediately contain the required number of related elements that enrich their composition. Basically, mineral fertilizers are used as additional ingredients.
To obtain an extract from peat, it is subjected to electrohydraulic treatment, while it is enriched with a byproduct of the process — nitrogen. Moreover, in large quantities. So, the use of a liquid solution based on this swamp substrate exceeds its performance when used in its natural form, and if there is no need to improve the structure of the soil, then preference should be given to stretching.
This compound is a growth promoter.. Peat oxidate has a good effect on increasing crop yields, accelerates the ripening of fruits, increases their nutritional value.
Oxide of peat is harmless to humans, an environmentally friendly product. At the same time it is a powerful catalyst for growth. It helps the plant's immunity to fight pathogenic microflora, speeds up the metabolism and activates all life processes.
Video: land preparation for planting using peat
Peat as a fertilizer is used in various areas of agriculture. They can feed as a garden arboretum, and apply it to flowers, as a top dressing and mulch material. But it is always necessary to take into account that this natural top dressing works best in a team, therefore, peat must always be supplemented with organic and mineral fertilizers.
Use on the dacha
The soil is depleted over time, the plants choose all the trace elements. To get a high yield it is necessary to fertilize it. Due to mineral fertilizers, the soil is saturated with potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements. Organic fertilizers, in turn, increase the fertility of the soil, and improves its granulometric composition.
Gardeners often use peat as fertilizer, which is affordable and cheap raw materials. It is formed in the swamps in a natural way as a result of the layering of microorganisms and plants. After extinction, they decompose, forming biomass. This fertilizer due to its composition and structure of the material is very useful for the garden.
Peat has numerous positive features.. It not only nourishes the soil, but also gives lightness, making the structure porous. Due to this, water and air penetrate faster to the roots of plants. In addition, it is a natural antiseptic that cleans the soil from harmful bacteria, supports microflora and protects against harmful fungi and bacteria.
According to the degree of decomposition peat is divided into three groups:
- Horse riding It is the top layer of the peat formation with the lowest degree of decomposition - 20%. In its composition there is a rosemary, moss and other plants. As a rule, high-moor peat is not introduced into the soil in its original form due to its high acidity. It is first processed. But this view is great as a substrate or mulch layer for greenhouses. It has a low weight and good thermal insulation properties. It does not caking and does not shrink, it has an acid reaction in its natural form and can be used to acidify the soil. Особенно такое удобрение подходит для: гортензий, рододендроны, верески, некоторые фиалки, картофель, земляника, щавель.
- Переходный. В состав входят перегнившие растения: осока, багульник, зеленый мох, сфагновый мох. Этот материал нашел свое основное использование в компостировании. It is added to the compost, improving the chemical composition. This type of peat is characterized by a weak acid reaction and low ash content. In the deposits it has a small thickness of the reservoir in the form of layers on the contact of the upland and lowland species. Very rarely, there are areas of peat bogs with high reservoir power. Vegetable fiber transition peat in its composition constantly. It differs only in the percentage of the main peat formers.
- Lowland. Consists of wood residues, moss and horsetail. The degree of decomposition of this peat is about 40%. This species is most suitable for introducing the soil, as it has a neutral pH reaction.
In turn, each type of peat is divided into subtypes, showing vegetationfrom which it was formed:
- woody (it contains about 40% of wood residues),
- wood-moss (moss are predominant among other tree residues),
- woody herbal (dominated by grass),
- grass (10% wood residues, 30 moss, 60 grassy residues),
- grass-moss (35–65% moss, 10% - wood residues),
- moss (70% moss).
Benefit and harm of top dressing
Peat contains some chemical elements.. Lowland species has a significant amount of carbon up to 60%. It also has:
Sulfur, potassium and phosphorus are present in small quantities.. Peat itself as a fertilizer is not very necessary, but it improves the fertility of the soil, increasing the humus layer, as well as:
- Due to its porous structure, it contributes to loosening the soil, improves the particle size distribution, increases breathability and water holding capacity. On poor humus, sandy and loamy soils, its use is necessary. In the land of this type of low organic content.
- It is also advisable to use peat on soils where a crust appears, which prevents access of oxygen to the root system of plants. If there is a loose, fertile and light soil at the site, the application of such fertilizer will not bring great results. It will be more effective to add it to the mineral fertilizer or to the compost.
- It has an antiseptic effect. This is facilitated by the presence in the composition of organic acids and compounds of peat and phenol, which in turn reduces the likelihood of the development of rot, fungi and pathogenic microorganisms.
- Promotes rapid soil warming
- Very hygroscopic. The addition of peat increases the absorption capacity of the soil layer, helps to delay useful substances in it, preventing them from leaching.
The disadvantage of using peat lies in its ability to increase soil acidity. To prevent this, only lowland species should be dosed out. In addition, when you make a product you need to zapravkovkovat, making lime (per 100 kg-6 kg of lime). It is best to demolish peat for digging or plowing the garden.
You can mix it with another fertilizer: with humus, compote, various food waste. At 1 sq. M. For a successful wintering of plants, you can use a top product as mulch.
The composting process begins with the preparation of a site for its placement.. You can take the box to lay it in layers of raw materials. Place earth and manure between it. To make the compost fertile, it is laid in layers with a thickness of about 50 cm or is thoroughly mixed with plant residues.
Peat is distinguished by its ability to retain moisture well.therefore, it should be tightly covered during storage. If this is not done, it will get wet from the rains and become a heavy mass, which can not be dried afterwards.
Self-prepared compost must be moistened until the raw material is loose, so that when the fertilizer is compressed by hand, water does not run in a stream. Previously in the box lay a layer of drainage from the branches. Many harmful soil microorganisms, as a rule, in an acidic medium whose pH is less than 5 units, do not live, but this indicator is lower in peat. It must be deoxidized before composting. To do this, add ash and limestone flour in any quantity and mix well.
In agriculture, apply two types of composted peat:
- Focal. In this case, peat is laid first and then in the middle and along the piles of manure.
- Layered Manure and mass are laid in layers, alternating to a height of 1.5 m.
Putting the manure, it is laid on all sides. In the summer they add slush and water. You can add lime and fertilizer from potassium, given the acidity of the soil.
Fertilize seedlings and garden crops once a year in spring or autumn for digging. Since peat is rather tight in its composition, it needs to be slightly modified before it is laid in the ground.
In the spring they remove the film, which was used to cover the peat mass for the winter and add fresh manure, mix and leave for two days. Then they scatter it on a new drainage, so that the fertilizing material becomes friable and filled with oxygen. After use, close again and leave to mature until autumn.
In nature, various plants and organisms that live in swamps or overgrown reservoirs become extinct, as a result of which a mass is formed, with time it becomes more and more. Peat formation occurs under conditions of minimal oxygen and high humidity.
Depending on the stage of decomposition of organisms, several types of peat are distinguished:
- Horseback when pressed layers are not completely decomposed.
- Lowland when decomposition occurred completely.
- Transitional peat is a state of mass between the upland and lowland species.
A person fertilizes the land with different means, but it is peat that is familiar with its useful qualities from ancient times, therefore it is used not only in agriculture, but also for working on private land plots.
Peat as a soil fertilizer
Many gardeners and gardeners believe that the land can be cultivated by peat alone, although this is a misconception, despite a large percentage of humus in it, it is not recommended to fertilize the soil in this way. This is easily explained by the fact that the composition of the peat mass includes a minimum amount of nutrients, it should be noted that it contains enough nitrogen, but it is difficult for the plant to absorb this additive. Experts do not advise using only peat as a fertilizer, since only a maximum of 1.5 kg of nitrogen per ton of land is needed, and other elements are also needed for the development and growth of crops. For fertilizing it is necessary to use other mineral as well as organic fertilizers.
Besides the fact that peat contains humus, it also has a porous structure, due to which the physiological qualities of the soil are significantly improved, this applies to any composition. Due to this fertilizer, the earth allows water and oxygen to pass through, breathes with ease, without difficulty, and the roots of the plant in such an environment feel good. This applies to lowland and intermediate types of peat, if we talk about the top type, then it is best to use it only to protect plants from frost.
For some types of soil, peat does not play a role and does not give anything as a fertilizer, especially with respect to fertile land. But if the soil in the area with admixtures of clay or sand is depleted and it lacks organic matter, then peat with additional fertilizers will change the situation for the better. Crops will bring a good harvest, and indoor plants will get the look.
Peaty soil is valuable only with the addition of other mineral or organic substrates or in the form of compost, which is especially useful for plants.
Positive qualities of peat
This type of fertilizer has many positive features, if used correctly, for example, feeds not only depleted soil, but also gives it lightness, makes the structure porous, so that air and water more quickly enter the root system of plants.
In addition, peat is an antiseptic of natural origin, therefore cleans the soil from harmful bacteria, supports the microflora and protects against various harmful bacteria and fungi. In addition, it easily increases the acidity of the soil, if necessary, thereby increasing the effectiveness of fertilizers. The optimal pH should be 3.5, otherwise peat, as fertilizer can harm crops.
Important! Improper use of such raw materials as fertilizer will lead to the fact that plants will grow slowly, and in some cases may even lead to death.
Some gardeners do not know how to properly use peat, so they make various mistakes in the process of tillage, for example, it is not recommended to bring it in a continuous way. To it should be added and other feed, organic or mineral species. You cannot use high-moor peat in the form of fertilizer, since there will be no sense, since in most cases it is used for mulching. For the sandy and fertile soil, the peat mass, as an organic fertilizer, is not suitable.
Making peat by hand
All works of composting begin with the fact that a place is being prepared for its placement, for example, a box, the raw material is laid in layers, between which are ground or manure.
In order for it to become fertile, it should be laid in layers no more than 50 cm thick, or it should be thoroughly mixed with the remnants of plants. A distinctive feature of peat is that it retains moisture well, so during its storage it is necessary to cover tightly, otherwise rains will lead to the formation of a wet and heavy mass, which subsequently can not be dried.
Self-prepared compost needs to be moistened until the raw material is loose, so that the water does not run like a stream, if you squeeze the fertilizer with your hand. In the box where the peat will be stored, you must put a good layer of drainage, for example, from the branches. As a rule, many soil harmful microorganisms do not live in an acidic environment, the pH of which is 5 units, this indicator is less in peat, therefore, before it is composted, it is necessary to feed raw materials. To do this, add lime powder and ash, in any quantity, thoroughly mixing.
In agriculture, there are two types of peat composting:
- Layered, when the mass and manure are laid in layers, alternating between raw materials, until the height of the stack is equal to 1.5 meters.
- Focal, when first of all put peat, and then along and in the middle of the pile of manure.
Manure is laid on all sides, and in the summer, water or liquid is added to the stack, and besides, peat compost is useful to add fertilizers from potassium, lime, considering the acidity of the soil.
Fertilizer with peat plants and seedlings
For seedlings and crops, fertilizer is prepared once per season, applied in the fall or spring, under digging, thereby increasing soil fertility. In terms of its composition, peat is tight, so it should be slightly modified before being embedded in the soil. When spring comes, remove the film, which covered the peat mass for the winter, add fresh feces and mix well, leave to stand for a maximum of two days, then scatter it on a new drain to make the fertilizer loose and fill it with oxygen. After use, close again to prevent rain, and leave to mature until autumn.
The main disadvantage of this fertilizer is that it does not contain clay and sand, as well as a stone, which create a drainage effect.
Sand and clay are very important for the soil, and the latter is even more so because it contains all the nutrients so that they are not washed, it helps to form high-quality humus elements. In simple words, clay is a favorable basis for fertile soil. The fact that the peat mass is formed in a swamp environment makes it rich not only in humus substances, but also in organic matter. The parameters of the ratio of sand and clay does not matter, as long as these components are present.
To fertilize the beds, it is enough to apply several buckets and sand, clay, not forgetting about other conventional mineral fertilizers, especially nitrogen compounds. The fertile soil is fertilized, and the peat soil must be treated on a mandatory basis, since many substances are practically absent in such raw materials.
As a rule, phosphorus and potassium add either peat compost, or directly to flowerbeds, in the process of their creation. In fact, they already have compost heaps, as they mix in as much manure and bird droppings as possible, grass mass and fertilizers, as well as ash and other additives, phosphate and dolomite flour. After everything is mixed, a bunch is left to infuse and ripen for at least several months.
You can also look at the video on how to get, use and store peat as a fertilizer.
Can i use
On the garden plots often use "clean" peat, free from any additives. It is dumped by the whole cars, and then evenly distributed on arable land. It is not right.
Lowland peat for 50% consists of humus. However, to obtain a good harvest is not enough. We'll have to use other fertilizers. Even nitrogen, which is abundantly contained in peat, is difficult for plants to absorb.
Note. 1000 kg of peat accounts for 25 kg of nitrogen, of which plants can consume a maximum of 1.5 kg.
To achieve a good effect, peat is mixed with turf or other beneficial ingredients. On 1 square. m. enough pair of buckets of this composition. Conduct a similar feeding annually.
The benefits of peat:
- Gardeners through peat achieve greater soil looseness. Especially those where clay with sand prevails.
- Promotes good air circulation.
- Provides poor soil with nutrients.
- Serves as a natural antiseptic. Kills microbes, fights fungus.
- Weakens the effect of pesticides.
- Normalizes soil pH composition.
- Heats the ground faster.
- Serves as the basis for a series of complex fertilizers.
- It can be used as a covering material for the winter.
- Hygroscopic (perfectly retains moisture).
- It completely lacks the larvae and eggs of parasites, weed seed.
- In combination with low-quality fertilizers slows down the growth of plants, contributes to their death.
- In its pure form, it increases the acidity of the soil, which negatively affects the growth of horticultural crops.
- Contraindicated for loose fertile soil.
- With large volumes of peat, you can bring to the plot one of the most dangerous pests of the garden - medvedka.
Types and properties of peat
- Formed in the swamps of particles of wood, moss, reeds and reeds. Mostly black.
- It is characterized by an abundance of mineral substances and rapid decomposition in the complete absence of oxygen (the degree of decomposition is above 40%).
- The average pH - 5. Apply on clay or sandy soils.
- Replete with humic acid. Perfectly absorbs water (humidity reaches 70%), because of which it often rolls, caking, and silting.
Before use, lowland peat needs long-term ventilation.
It is this type, in view of maximum neutrality, that is preferable for use in vegetable gardens. It is not composted in addition - they are applied immediately. On apt. m. enough 30 liters.
Lowland peat is often used in spring for mulching lawn surfaces. Pre-lawn subjected to combing, make nitrogenous fertilizers. Sprinkled on top with a five-millimeter layer of peat.
- Its composition includes wild rosemary, moss, and other plants that are not whimsical to water and food.
- It has a porous structure, and therefore retains water well.
- The degree of decomposition - 20%.
- The fibrous structure allows to keep mineral compounds for a long time.
- Able to provide the soil with good thermal insulation.
- Does not shrink on the soil.
- Its pH on average is 2.7.
High-moor peat is used to fertilize fruit crops and flowers.
Due to the strong acidity, it requires preliminary composting - organic substances must decompose completely.
On the basis of top peat, substrates are made for sowing vegetables, flowers, and greens. In greenhouses it is often used as a base material, previously ventilated, supplying dolomite flour and minerals.
Wet organic materials are poured on the ground in small piles for airing (the optimum humidity for this type of compost is 70%). Next, this material is laid with a layer of 50 cm in a prepared place. Inside they make small depressions, where they put the feces of domestic animals. Top sprinkled with a small layer of peat. Sidewalls, if necessary, strengthen the ground. If the compost starts to dry, it is watered. It will be possible to use such fertilizer in a year. The optimal application time is spring. Consumption - up to 3 kg per 1 square. m
The principle is about the same: first, a peat layer is laid (no more than 0.5 m), then - a layer of manure (any suitable: cow, goat, horse, chicken), above - peat again. The maximum height of the bookmark is 150 cm. When drying, this compost is poured with water, slurry, herbal infusion or a solution of potassium.
Attention! This type of compost needs to be mixed once every 2 months.
Most crops respond well to the application of peat fertilizer: rapid flowering, abundance of fruits. Top dressing is carried out in the spring. Особенно любят торф картофель, помидоры, голубика, клубника, цветы.
Именно эта культура усваивает полезные вещества из торфа лучше остальных. Почва при этом должна быть рыхлая, слабокислая. Если смешать торфяной компост с минеральными удобрениями, плодороднее почвы будет просто не найти.
Light soil fertilized in the spring - put the peat mass immediately in the wells. Heavy - in the fall, simultaneously with the introduction of manure.
In the spring, peat compost is laid together with sprouted potato tubers immediately in the wells. So all the nutrients get to the growing roots. This is a very important moment for those who want to get a good harvest in autumn.
The use of peat has a beneficial effect on strawberry fruiting: it blooms profusely, ripens faster, gives a bountiful harvest.
Pure peat is suitable only for mulching beds. But there is a reservation here: many gardeners are sure that this cannot be done because of the high acidity of organic raw materials. The situation can be remedied by pre-ventilation and mixing it with sawdust and ash (5 kg of ash are taken for 50 kg of peat).
To feed the culture itself is better to use a composted composition. There are 2 ways to make it under strawberries:
- When planting directly in the hole (the peat layer in this case should not exceed 5 cm).
- In autumn, when preparing strawberry beds for winter, peat compost is scattered between the rows and dug up (25 kg is enough for 1 sq. M.).
About once every 2 weeks produce a top-dressing of tomatoes with peat mixture. This contributes to the formation of a friendly ovary on the bushes, uniform fruit ripening and obtaining a rich harvest.
Some gardeners increase this effect by laying such a mixture in the wells when sowing seedlings.
Allows you to increase the yield from the dacha by 50% in just 2-3 applications
It is known that the queen of vegetable beds is quite capricious. Cabbage feels best in a low acid environment.
If you reduce the acidity of organic raw materials by the method of pre-composting, it can be safely used for this culture. The effect will be visible immediately: the ovary will appear fairly quickly, the cabbage will be more resistant to pests, the keel will not develop on the rhizome.
Peat compost is applied directly to the hole (about a handful in volume) before planting the grown shoots.
Cucumbers, like cabbage, do not like the high acidity of peat. Because organic raw materials are first composted, and then laid out on the beds. It is difficult to think of the best top dressing for cucumbers: they develop well, bloom and bear fruit well. The approximate dosage of such fertilizer is 20 kg per 1 sq. M. m
Peat feed not only garden flowers, but also home. It is also used for mulching.
The material has the greatest value in combination with other organic as well as mineral fertilizers and sand.
In very porous soil, it is easier for flowers to transfer a transplant if they are fertilized with a peat mixture. This is especially noticeable in the case of capricious peonies, which do not tolerate any interference in their development.
Peat mixture helps to grow abundantly flowering plants, with strong green shoots.
Peat briquette ash
Peat ash is used as a lime and partially phosphate fertilizer on strongly acidified soils. This is usually done at the rate of 2 kg per 1 sq. Km. m
On clay soils and loams, it is recommended to scatter peat ash before autumn plowing, on sandy soils before spring. Berry bushes, fruit trees also favor ash.
However, its use cannot replace plant nutrition with nitrogen, potassium, and organic matter.
Important! Do not make peat ash under the tomatoes and cucumbers. They are very whimsical to nutrition and growing conditions. Permissible its introduction under the potato, as well as perennial herbs.
Ash from peat briquettes is also successfully used as a fertilizer. It contains potassium, phosphorus and lime. On heavy soils, it is recommended to make it twice a year: in autumn and spring (dosage - 1 kg per sq. M.). On light soils, one spring application is enough.
The use of such ash increases the yield of beds, improves the quality of the soil.
Many gardeners are categorically against the ash from peat briquettes. After all, it may contain coal dust and even oil products that provide strength to briquettes. You need to choose only environmentally friendly briquettes of reputable manufacturers.
Allows you to increase the yield from the dacha by 50% in just 2-3 applications
Modern firms are ready to offer a wide range of peat-based fertilizers. Very popular with gardeners peat ground. It is a mixture of soil with peat in a 1: 1 ratio. However, other relationships are possible. It all depends on the type of soil. There is peat soil with a minimum set of mineral substances (phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen), its cost is from 750 rubles / cubic meter.
You can buy peat in its pure form and independently prepare compost based on it. The cost of a cubic meter - from 650 rubles. It is also sold in bags - from 180 rubles.
If you do not have time to prepare the compost, you can buy peat-containing preparations:
- In the form of granules. It is placed immediately in the hole. Contains peat, sawdust, ash, chicken manure.
- In the form of a solution. Used for root dressings.
Prices for such drugs start from 150 rubles / pcs.
Errors novice gardeners
Inexperienced gardeners sometimes make irreparable mistakes. The most frequent of them:
- Replacing other types of fertilizer with peat.
- Non-compliance with the dosage of application depending on the type of soil.
- Neglecting the composting process.
- Using peat without prior preparation.
- Peresushka organic raw materials.
- Use on fertile lands.
How peat is formed
Plants and organisms that live in swamps, in overgrown reservoirs, lakes with low-flowing water, die over time, forming biomass, which every year more and more overlaps each other and, accordingly, is pressed. Thus, in conditions of high humidity and lack of air peat is formed. Depending on the degree of decomposition happens riding (almost not decomposed) lowland (completely decomposed) and transitional (intermediate between high and low).
Peat as a fertilizer: “for” and “against”
Is pure peat, that is, without any third-party additives, suitable for fertilizing the garden? After all, some not very experienced gardeners buy it in large quantities. They scatter along the beds, under trees and shrubs, and joyfully rub their hands in anticipation of record harvests. Alas ... this way they will not get ... Although the peat (lowland and transitional) consists of humus by 40-60%, it is not recommended to fertilize the land alone.
Pure peat as a fertilizer is inefficient.
Why? Yes, because it is quite poor in nutrients. Yes, it is rich in nitrogen (up to 25 kg per ton), but nitrogen from peat is very poorly absorbed by plants. Out of a ton, our green pets get only 1-1.5 kg of nitrogen, not to mention other vital elements for plants. So never fertilize your plots with peat alone, use other types of organic and mineral fertilizers.
It is useful for enriching the land. Due to the fibrous porous structure, it significantly improves the physiological properties of soils of different composition. The soil, well-flavored with peat, becomes water-and breathable, "breathes" easily and freely, and the root system of the plants feels more comfortable in it. I'm talking about lowland and intermediate peat, and here riding It is not used as a fertilizer at all, as it strongly acidifies the soil.
It should be noted that there are many plants that require acidic or slightly acidic soil for normal development. These include, for example, heathers, ericas, rhododendrons, hydrangeas, blueberries. When planting such plants in a permanent place in the landing pit, they add high-moor peat, and then periodically they also mulch them.
Lowland peat as a fertilizer
So do you need “clean” peat (that is, without any additives) as fertilizer? And here a lot depends on the quality of the soil itself. If the soil is fertile, sandy or light loamy, then adding peat as a fertilizer will give almost nothing, do not waste your efforts and money)) But if the soil in your area is sandy or clayey, depleted and poor in organic matter, applying peat together with other fertilizers significantly improve the yield and appearance of your decorative pets. The value of peat as a fertilizer can be considered exclusively in combination with other types of organic and mineral supplements and in the form of composts.
How to make peat compost
Peat compost includes organic matter: tops, torn weeds with clods of soil, wood ash, sawdust, shavings, food waste and other natural ingredients. And the compost pile is arranged very simply. Somewhere aside, away from the resting places, organize a 2x2 m area. Lay the peat about 30 cm high on it in the first layer. Top with sawdust (10 cm), then lay the tops, weeds, and food debris mixed with garden soil. Make this layer 20 cm high.
If you have manure, great! Put it on top of the above layers at a height of 20 cm. Any manure will suit perfectly: horse, mullein, bird droppings and so on. Now cover this whole multi-layer construction with another layer of peat (20-30 cm) and leave to rot for 12-18 months. Do not raise the compost pile to a height of more than 1.5 m, and cover it from the sides with peat or garden soil in order to ensure an appropriate microclimate inside the pile. Periodically moisten the compost pile with water with the addition of superphosphate (100 g per bucket).
If your dung is tight, at least find an opportunity to water the compost with diluted slurry (5 kg of mullein per bucket of water). Or with a solution of dry bird droppings (0.5 kg per bucket of water) or fresh litter (2 kg per bucket of water). 2-3 times over the summer, shovel the compost pile thoroughly, trying to keep the top layer inward, and the bottom layer, respectively, outward.
It is very useful to close the pile from the scorching sun with a special shed. By the fall, cover the compost pile: fill it with dry leaves, high peat, earth, fir branches or other mulching material. And when the first snow rolls out, wrap a stack of compost in a snow coat.
Now we can talk about the nutritional value of country plants, since such compost is not inferior in its nutritional properties to manure, and if it has not been overdried and frozen, it even surpasses manure in its value to plants.
They fertilize the land with peat compost in the same way as with manure: they spread them evenly over the cultivated area, put them in the near-stemming circles of the trees and under the bushes. But here it should be noted that properly prepared peat compost is a more valuable fertilizer than manure, and much less is required for fertilizing the soil. If 60-70 kg of manure is usually applied for 10 m² of soil, then peat compost requires only 10-20 kg for the same area (besides, it more generously gives nutrients to plants than manure).
How much peat is applied to the soil
To begin with, it is worth noting that it is impossible to “pereudobrit” the land with peat. They bring it both in the spring and in the fall, evenly scattering on the site and digging shovels on the bayonet, 30-40 kg per 1 m². In the future, pour peat into the near-stem circles of trees, shrubs and planting areas to a height of 5-6 cm.
How much peat is applied to the soil
Particularly useful is such a padding on soils where, after prolonged rains, a dense crust forms on the surface. In this case, peat also acts as a mulching material. He is quite friendly to any soil and will not spoil any soil. But there is a small nuance: peat has high acidity (pH 2.5-3.0), so it should be neutralized with lime, dolomite flour or wood ash at the rate of 5 kg of lime or dolomite flour per 100 kg of peat or 10-12 kg of wood ash per 100 kg of peat.
So, we considered the beneficial properties of peat as a fertilizer for our green pets. Or maybe you know some other ways to use peat in the country? Share with us!
Peat extraction technology
Lying on the surface, it is easily mined. Do it in two ways:
- lump or excavator way.
This method involves peat extraction in short cycles. That is, with the help of milling drums, the upper layer 6-20 mm deep is milled. As a result, a crumb of peat is formed, the particle size of which is 15-25 mm. After milling, the layer is constantly turned over in order to dry.
When it dries out, it begins to gum up, stack. Then everything repeats, the number of repetitions reaches 10-50 times.
They have been using this mining method since 1930. The advantages of this method are that it is fully mechanized, that is, the cost of the material obtained is low. Use milled peat in production, power plants. And in agriculture 15-25% of the extracted minerals. The milling method is intensive drying and requires good weather conditions. In addition, it is more in demand, since human resource costs are minimal, and production is in large quantities.
It is extracted with the help of excavators. The development is carried out to a depth of 400–800 cm. First, peat is mined using bucket technique, then bricks are formed from it. They are laid out in the fields for drying. Then stack and take out. Based on the mining site and other development costs, the cost of the mineral is determined. The weight of one piece varies from 500 to 1000 g. This method of extraction is not more than 90 years.
It is mined in all possible ways, it all depends on where it lies and which method is more profitable. Most often, this type is used for agriculture in order to improve the fertility of the soil.
Peat as a fertilizer: pros and cons
When purchasing peat, young and inexperienced gardeners add it in unlimited quantities to the beds with plantings. Whether this is right, and whether it is harmful to cultivated plants, only a few think. Peat is 40-60% of humus, but in its pure form for the garden it is very harmful. Plus, many gardeners consider a large percentage of nitrogen content, about 25 kg per 1 ton.
But few people know that this nitrogen is not absorbed by plants, since it is poorly absorbed.
It is better not to fertilize the vegetable garden with pure peat, it is necessary to mix it with other organic fertilizers. Plus the addition of peat to the soil in that it increases the air permeability of the soil, making it more airy and friable. It is easier for plants to grow in such land, but this is not enough for the full development of the root system, green mass and fruits.
It is recommended to use transitional or lowland peat. In no case riding, it greatly increases the acidity of the soil composition.
High-moor peat is suitable for plants that feel great in acidic soil. In this case, it is added during transplantation and later it mulches the soil around the plants.
To understand the value of this mineral can be compared with organic fertilizers:
Humus and manure
The main difference is acidity. Peat wins here, so it is used for depleted land. But in most cases, they use humus, as there are more nutrients needed for plant growth.
Chernozem contains a large amount of humus, but there are also more pathogenic bacteria and viruses in it. Therefore, the summer resident has to choose on the basis of what the soil lacks. If you make peat, it must be diluted with sand and perlite and humus.
What is peat for?
A beginner gardener wonders about the role of peat fertilizer for the site. The advantage of its use is that a large number of humic and amino acids are concentrated in it, they contribute to the rapid growth of plants.
Peat is used for the preparation of fertile soil for planting seedlings, indoor plants.
The main purpose of the use of peat in agriculture is to increase the fertility of the soil.
Advantages of using mineral in the area:
- soil structure improvement
- yield increase,
- increase moisture permeability
- improved breathability.
How useful fertilizer for the backyard, summer resident will appreciate after its use. But it is necessary to carefully study the composition of the soil, and then apply fertilizing.
There are many properties due to which it is widely used in agriculture, medicine, cosmetology and many other industries. Summer resident is interested in the answer to the question, what properties does peat have, useful for a personal plot or a dacha:
- In combination with other organic substances can nourish and enrich the soil.
- It makes the ground water-and breathable.
- Increases soil acidity.
- Removes the soil from pathogenic microflora.
- Able to reduce nitrate levels.
- Weakens the effects of pesticides.
Peat properties differ depending on which species it belongs to. No need to make minerals on fertile soils. In this case, its properties are neutral.
Part of the plant residues that are not completely decomposed. Their decay products and mineral particles. В естественных условиях в нем содержится 86—95% воды. Ботанический состав:
- остатки древесины,
- кора и корни деревьев,
- различные растительные остатки,
- гипновый и сфагновый мох.
Химический состав различен, он зависит от типа, ботанического состава и степени разложения. That is, on what type of peat is investigated, and whose plant residues at its base depends on the percentage of micro and macro elements in its composition.
It directly depends on how much calcium is in its composition. Because of the high degree of acidity, horseback is practically not used during planting, it is suitable for mulching. Since its pH is 3-5. Summer residents prefer to use lowland peat, since its degree of acidity is 5-8. All particles in its composition are well decomposed and suitable for feeding any culture.
According to the degree of acidity, the following classification is determined:
- Strongly acid, their ash content is 1.5-3%, the content of lime is 0.15-0.6%, pH 2.5-4.
- Moderate, ash content of 3-6%, the presence in the composition of lime 1%, pH 3.5-4.5.
- Slightly acidic, ash content 5–12%, lime more than 1%, pH 4.5-5.5.
- Neutral, increased ash, neutral pH above 7%.
It is worth remembering that when it comes to composition, it is impossible to say for sure about all types. Therefore, general characteristics are given.
Degree of decomposition
On how much peat has decomposed, the presence of humus in it depends. That is, the greater the degree of decomposition, the higher the percentage ratio of structureless particles. This characteristic is fundamental in describing qualities and useful properties.
This indicator is determined in percent, "by eye" or under a microscope. In the first case, only fresh peat is taken, which has its own natural moisture. Signs that determine the degree of decomposition:
- the number and preservation of plant fragments,
- amount and color of pressed water.
Divided into 3 groups:
- 30% is highly degraded. It is pressed through the fingers, separate, large fragments of plant residues remain in the hands. After the extraction of water, which is either very little or not at all, it remains plastic. The water is dark brown.
- 20% - average decay. It is difficult to push through fingers, many remains of plants remain in the hands. Water that is pressed light brown or brown. Squeezed peat spring is weak.
- Less than 20% - poorly decomposed. It is impossible to push through the fingers. Plant residues are easily distinguishable. Water is pressed out easily, its color is yellowish or colorless. Squeezed peat springy and rough on the surface.
The macroscopic method provides more detailed information. PD proposed it. Varlygin.
In the field, when it is not possible to conduct laboratory tests using the smear method. The disadvantage of the method of determining the degree of decomposition is hard to see traces of slightly decomposed soil. A plus is a quick determination of results.
Types of peat
According to research by the Institute for the European part of the Soviet Union, there are 38 species. But all these species are grouped into 3 types, which are subdivided based on the properties of peat and the nature of the waters feeding the swamps.
Fueled by groundwater. Its pH is neutral or slightly acidic. In total, it contains 70% of organic residues, in addition, it contains a large amount of mineral substances.
Lowland peat is often used to improve the soil composition of the soil, which has been used for a long time without making any fertilizer.
Of all types, it is the most barren, therefore it is suitable only for mulching or plants that require high acidity of the soil for growth and development.
It includes sphagnum moss, pine, cotton grass and a certain amount of moisture. And also there are no parasites and weed seeds. Especially these qualities are valuable for those summer residents who have greenhouses.
Subspecies of the top view. It is used for the preparation of substrates; for this, raw materials of low degree of decomposition are taken. It uses limestone flour to neutralize acidity.
With its use, greenhouse soil is made, or the soil for plants grown in pots. For open ground, used for planting trees and shrubs.
For the garden
Pure peat is not used for fertilizing the beds. Basically it is mixed with humus and other organic substances. And make it a wet 50-60%. Otherwise, it will be mulching.
Peat compost is a common phenomenon in summer cottages. In addition, gardeners call this method of application the most effective.
For the greenhouse
The ability of the mineral to absorb moisture and at the same time retain it, is indispensable in the arrangement of the greenhouse. With these properties, it has long maintained the optimum temperature of the soil in the greenhouse. Concurrently, the mineral is an antiseptic. Therefore, in greenhouses, peat is filled by 50-90%.
For use in the garden requires a preliminary preparation of minerals. Within 2 weeks it is recommended to withstand thoroughly fluffing. If you can sift through a sieve.
When using peat in the garden requires constant watering. Proper use will provide the roots of plants with useful substances and oxygen necessary for the active growth of plants.
Peat is used for many types of crops. Apply as fertilizer in the spring or in the fall under digging. This helps to improve the composition of the soil and increase the nutrients that the plant takes for proper development and growth.
Fans to grow flowers, garden and indoor, also note the positive effect of peat on plants. Using minerals as a fertilizer helps plants to recover more quickly after transplantation.
Peonies react especially well. They grow faster, bloom better and have a very strong smell. Use it as a mulch and top dressing. In the second case, it is necessary to combine with mineral fertilizers.
Application in winter
In winter, minerals are used for compost. During the winter, it overheats and turns into the most nutritious fertilizer. Making it in the winter causes early snow melt. Consequently, the soil begins to warm up earlier.
Fertilizer individual crops
Minerals used for some crops in different ways, it is important to know how to fertilize properly, so as not to harm either the plant or the ground.
Growing potatoes is a laborious process. Summer resident to get a harvest makes fertile soil in the garden, adding sand and clay. But by themselves, these components do not perform the necessary function, so peat is added to them. This composition of the soil is most suitable for culture.
Applying fertilizer on strawberry beds, gardeners note the early ripeness of the berry, the harvest becomes richer, the taste of the strawberry is richer. Bring in the spring or in the fall, mixing with sawdust and well drying. It is added to the aisle of 30 kg per 1 m 2. Or directly to each well.
For this culture, peat is used as foliar and basal dressing 1 time in 2 weeks. Or bring on 1 m 2 4 kg, scattering evenly over the bed.
For better effect, mineral is added when planting seeds.
Due to the introduction of peat into the soil get a rich crop of culture. It is important to observe the dosage and promptly propel or reduce the acidity of the soil. Observance of proportions will help to get the maximum possible yield from cucumber bushes.
For this culture, which is very fastidious to acidity, peat is used to lower the pH. Then the effect of its use will be noticeable almost immediately.
Soil fertilizer with peat
To increase the fertility of the soil, summer residents use this mineral. But many do not even think about what it brings and harm. Therefore, before fertilizing the soil, it is required to determine what the soil needs.
Bringing it into the fertile land, do not wait for improvements, since the result will not be. But if the soil is heavily depleted, then it increases its fertility.
Summer residents recommend introducing minerals together with other organic additives, so in its pure form it is poor in minerals.
Before use, you must properly prepare the mineral. This requires simple requirements to be met:
- Air well before use. To evaporate toxic substances that are in its composition.
- The humidity of the raw materials used is not less than 50%.
- The effects on the plant are not instantaneous, sometimes they are noticeable, only after 2–3 years.
- Regardless of the season, fertilization is always appropriate.
- The best way to use it is compost.
When to make
There are no specific deadlines, it is brought in at any time, in spring and autumn for plowing. During the period of plant growth, aisle and under the roots.
There are no rules for the use of minerals. They note only the moment that it is necessary to make several years in a row, gradually bringing the soil to the desired degree of fertility.
This process also requires compliance with the rules, it leads to a positive result from the work done. Mulch during the growing season or before winter. In the summer, peat is used for this, which is superimposed by a layer from 1 to 2 cm. In the spring, protecting the planting, up to 5 cm, in the winter, the layer is not limited.
To enrich the fertile layer of the earth, peat mixed with any organic additives is used. Since he alone does not provide for the proper enrichment of minerals. Mineral, in its pure form, is used only for mulching.
High-moor peat for mulch, lowland and transitional, is used to enrich the soil.
Peat compost organization
Pure fertilizer gives little soil nutrients. Therefore, gardeners recommend composting. For its preparation, foliage, food waste, cut weeds and other plant residues are necessary. Compost is prepared within 1-1.5 years. The degree of readiness is determined visually. The whole mass should be homogeneous and loose.
There are 2 ways to organize compost, which of them is preferred by the summer resident himself.
A layer of peat is laid out at a selected place of 50–60 cm. Then a layer of 70–80 cm is laid out in a continuous layer, or in heaps. Moreover, the width is made, the less peat layer is 1–1.5 m and then covered with a layer of peat, 50–60 cm. from all sides. This method is preferred in winter.
Peat is distributed to a width of 4-5 m, the length of the section where possible, a layer thickness of 50 cm, then a layer of manure is laid, then peat again, and so several times, the height of the finished compost pile is 2 m. The last layer is necessarily peat.
Fertilizer producers create plant food. Make it for those who can not independently make a compost pile. Make in the form of granules, which are added directly to the wells. And liquid fertilizer that is absorbed much better. They are watered with plants and used as a growth promoter for seeds.
Alternative to peat fertilizers
If it is not possible to purchase a mineral, it is replaced with organic matter similar in composition to nutrients. These include:
- bird droppings
- sawdust, bark,
- compost pits.
Selection of alternatives for the vegetable grower.
The best replacement for peat. Its composition is rich in minerals that are necessary for plants to grow and develop. All of them are in easily digestible form.
The only negative for the site can not use fresh manure.
Rich in nutrients that increase the overall fertility of the soil. Enter before digging or directly into the wells.
Used as an alternative to peat in most cases, as it is rich in nutrients that enrich the soil.
It is recommended to use pigeon, chicken, less litter geese and ducks. Brought in the autumn in undiluted form. During the season used as a liquid fertilizer.
Rich in humus, potassium and nitrogen sludge is used in areas to improve soil fertility.
They are not used in pure form, special preparation of fertilizer with their use is required. Make on the basis of the compost heap.
Cheap and affordable organic fertilizer, which is an excellent substitute for minerals. Bring on the plots only smoked. Mixed with other dressings and layered with the ground.
Compost is prepared from the bark, mixed with mineral supplements and moisturized. Ready fertilizer will be within 6 months.
Since autumn, the site is sown with perennial or annual crops, plowed in the spring. Useful substances pass into the soil, enriching the soil.
Harmless organic fertilizer that significantly increases the fertility of the soil. Minus feeding is that it is prepared from 1 to 2 years. But do not forget that it is in this form that minerals are better absorbed by plants.
Peat as a fertilizer is indispensable in the area. But do not make it thoughtlessly, everything is good in moderation.