Rutabagum belongs to the biennial plant of the Cabbage family and the genus Cabbage. In different regions this vegetable is given its name. Recently, it is considered undeservedly forgotten by gardeners, and on the table now you will not see dishes from this plant. To grow swede, you do not need to expend a lot of effort, especially since the conditions for growing this vegetable are suitable almost everywhere. The fruits of the plant are used both for the feed supply of livestock and for the preparation of various dishes.
The history of rutabaga
This vegetable was eaten in ancient times, although the time of its appearance is still unknown. According to one version, rutabaga appeared due to cabbage and turnip crossing, and it happened by itself. And with the place of its appearance, too, not everything went smoothly. Some argue that swede first appeared in Russia, while others say - in Europe, closer to the Scandinavian countries. Perhaps, therefore, one of its names - "Swedish turnips."
In Europe, it really was popular. At first, only poor people were used as food for swede, and then the rest of the classes understood its taste and benefits. In the 17th century, it became widely grown in the royal fields of England. Until now, in this country they are cooking rutabagas with meat. Not less popular this vegetable won in Germany. The existence of a tale of turnips in this country speaks volumes.
At the end of the 18th century, this vegetable appeared in Russia, but soon the potato took over the championship, and interest in swede fell sharply. In Russia, this vegetable was consumed raw, extinguished, baked and cattle were fed by it. This plant was also used as a medicine.
This plant tolerates low temperatures and drought.. In the first year of cultivation, the fruit and leaves form in the vegetable, and in the second turnip, it blooms, seeds appear. The plant has a high stem with dissected, almost bare, sometimes whole leaves. Root vegetables, depending on the variety, have different shapes and colors of dense pulp.
The taste of the fruit is sharp peculiar. The stem can sometimes reach up to 1.5 meters in height. Flowers in a vegetable are usually yellow and grow as a brush. Fruits have the appearance of a pod, reaching 10 cm in length. Seeds are round, small and dark.
Types and varieties
There are many species and varieties of both food swede and feed., which brought, crossing food with cabbage. These varieties are very fruitful and do not require much care. We will look at some food varieties:
- Swedish yellow. It got its name because of the yellow color of the skin and pulp. The fruits are very tasty and quite large (up to 600 grams).
- "Light Dream". The term of maturation of the fruit ranges from 115 to 125 days. They are oval and medium in size. The flesh is yellow, dense and very sweet. It is used both raw and processed for long-term storage.
- Rutabaga Krasnoselskaya. It has long been known, early variety, with good taste. Fruits are greenish in color with a dense and sugary flesh of a yellow color.
- Ruby. Recently bred variety with very good taste.
This is just a small list of varieties of swede.
Growing and caring for turnips includes several steps:
- Planting seeds for seedlings. We start growing seedlings at home, so as not to expose the young plant to pest attack. First, prepare the seeds for planting. To do this, pour half a glass of water into a glass and add finely chopped garlic. Swede seeds are kept in this solution for about 1 hour. Then wash them with clean water and dry. Next, seeds should be germinated by placing them on wet gauze. While the seeds germinate, you must prepare deep boxes and fill them with acquired soil for seedlings. Then we make grooves with a depth of 1.5 cm at a distance of 6−7 cm between them. After 2−3 cm lay in the grooves of the seeds and sprinkle. We pour the earth in the boxes and close it with a film with holes for ventilation. This whole process should be carried out 1.5 months before planting seedlings in the ground.
- Growing seedlings. As soon as sprouts appear in our boxes, the film should be removed. Further, as our seedlings grow, we thin, water and loosen the soil. Due to the weak root system in young shoots, diving is not necessary. We specially prepared deep boxes for this. Two weeks before planting on the site, daily hardened seedlings, carrying boxes in the afternoon to the open air.
Planting in open ground
With the onset of warm days start planting seedlings in the ground. This is usually done in late spring or early summer. To make it easier for seedlings to get out of the boxes, it must be watered plentifully. Before planting seedlings should carefully prepare the ground. If the land is of high acidity, then lime should be added to it, otherwise the swede will grow poorly and be stored. The soil should pass moisture well. Fertilizer is applied to the site under the swede in the fall under a deep digging.
Then prepare the wells at a distance of 20 cm in a row and 40−50 cm between rows. We water each well well. Before planting the roots of each seedling dipped in clay solution. Sprinkling each plant should be watered again and sheltered from direct sunlight.
Plant care activities: regular watering, weeding and loosening of the soil, feeding. One of the conditions for obtaining a tasty and juicy root is the correct watering. With too frequent watering, we can get a very watery fruit. If watering is scarce, the fruit will eventually turn out to be bitter and tasteless.
In addition, the plant will begin to bloom prematurely. Water rutabaga should be careful not to wash off the ground covering the root. After each irrigation, we are obliged to loosen the soil so that the root crop receives enough air.
As soon as a rosette of leaves appears, loosening should be combined with hilling. During loosening we remove the weeds that will hinder the development of the plant. After 14 days after planting seedlings should be the first feeding. To do this, we prepare a solution of manure in the buckets and after irrigation we bring in each plant. After the beginning of the appearance of root crops, we carry out the second fertilizing with mineral fertilizers.
Fight against diseases and pests
Immediately after sowing seedlings we process leaves of fine wood ash, protecting the plant from the occurrence of cruciferous flea. For swede, diseases such as lingerie, felt disease, kila, mosaic, and other species common to all crucifers are dangerous. Of the pests, it is worth noting the sprout fly, rapeseed flower beetle, slugs, bedbugs, etc. Insecticides and fungicides are used to combat them. Treatment with chemicals should be stopped one month before harvesting. Good help from pests planting next to the sweep of accompanying plants - it is mint, savory, sage, etc.
Planting and maintenance of turnips (in short)
- Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - in early April, planting seedlings in the ground - usually in mid-May.
- Lighting: bright sunshine.
- The soil: fertile sandy, cultivated peat or loamy with a pH of 5.5-7.0 in the area with a deep groundwater.
- Watering: 3-5 times per season at a flow rate of 10 liters of water per 1 m² area.
- Top dressing: 1st — slurry 2 weeks after transplanting into the ground, 2nd — with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer during the formation of root crops.
- Breeding: seed.
- Pests: sprout fly, rapeseed flower beetle, slugs, bedbugs, aphid, moth, flea, spring cabbage fly and babanukha.
- Diseases: belle, felt disease, kila, mosaic, vascular bacteriosis and black leg.
Vegetable rutabaga - description
Vegetable rutabaga - plant cold-resistant and drought-resistant. Swede is a relative of such crops as turnip, radish, radish, horseradish, mustard, turnip and all types of cabbage. In the first year of growth, a turnip forms a root crop and a rosette of leaves, and in the second, stalks and seeds. The stem of the plant is tall, leafy, the leaves are almost bare or pubescent, lyre-shaped, peristonadrezannye. All ground swede parts are gray. Flowers with yellow petals are collected in a racemes, the fruit is a long, smooth or tubercular pod with dark brown spherical seeds.
The shape of the root crops, depending on the variety, can be cylindrical, rounded flat, round or oval, the flesh can be white or different shades of yellow. In terms of taste, swede looks like a turnip, but surpasses it in nutrition. The topic of our article is planting and caring for swede in open field, but we will also tell you what types of swede exist for open soil, when to plant swede in the middle lane, how swede is planted in spring and how it will be done in winter, how to properly store the swede, and give a lot of interesting and necessary information.
Sowing swede seeds.
Growing swede begins with sowing seeds for seedlings - when growing seedlings at home, young plants are not attacked by the cruciferous flea and other pests. Before sowing, the seeds are disinfected for an hour in a garlic solution, for the preparation of which 25 g of minced garlic is filled with water in an amount of 100 g. After the treatment, the seeds are washed in pure water and dried. It is also recommended to germinate seeds before sowing: they are kept wrapped in a damp cloth until small white sprouts appear from the seeds.
Swede seeds are sown at the beginning of April, about 40 days before planting in the ground, sealing them to a depth of 1-1.5 cm in a wet substrate placed in deep boxes. For a more even distribution of seeds during sowing, mix them in a 1: 1 ratio with tooth powder or with sifted superphosphate. The distance between the seeds in the row should be 2-3 cm, and between the rows - 6-7 cm. The crops are covered with glass or film and kept at a temperature of 17-18 ºC.
Briefly about sweatshirt
Traditionally, scientists, breeders call rutabaga "sister" turnips and cabbage. Rutabaga is such a hybrid, distantly related to horseradish, mustard and other vegetable crops. Swede is a two-year fruit and vegetable crop that forms a root crop and a leaf rosette in the first year of "its life", in the second - seeds and flower stalks. This vegetable loves light and moisture, is not afraid of cold and drought. It has a pronounced taste, very much like a turnip, but more nutritious compared to it. Swede - a storehouse of vitamin C, it is also rich in vitamin B2 (6,12), minerals, iodine, fiber, etc.
Council Since swede is rich in fiber, its use is recommended for persons suffering from intestinal obstruction or atherosclerosis.
Description of the main varieties and varieties
According to the official classification, rutabagans are classified according to the ecological-geographical principle into the following categories:
- Western European. It has a slightly raised rosette of leaves, which are most often dissected or trimmed / bare. The root crop of West European swede is submerged in the soil shallowly. The flesh is very juicy and strong. Depending on the color of the pulp, Western European rutabaga is divided into two subspecies: white meat and yellow meat. The first has a root crop of such forms: oval, round, pear-shaped. Bark - no streaks, purple or green. The flesh, respectively, is white, but it tastes worse than yellow meat. Yellowyas has a root-crop with a flat-rounded shape or cone-shaped. The bark (at the top) is green. The flesh is yellow and extremely tasty. This variety of West European swede is mainly represented by fodder varieties.
- North European. Has a strongly pressed sheet rosette. Leaves dissected. Fruits are small / medium size. The bark at the bottom of the root has a pronounced net structure. The flesh of the fruit is yellow with excellent taste.
- Siberian. Very similar in its external characteristics with number one in the classification, but still the Siberian rutabaga is a hybrid. It differs strongly pressed socket (usually without reeds). The root crop is cone-shaped, rounded and at the same time slightly flattened. The bark is gray-green. The flesh is yellow, fragrant and tasty.
To understand exactly what is the difference between the main types of swede, look for comparative photos on the web.
Rutabagas are mainly cultivated in two types: canteen and fodder. At the dining room yellow flesh (most often) with a delicate flavor. The following table swede varieties are very popular: Krasnoselskaya (medium early), Swedish (early), Kohalik blue (middle ripe), Marian, Ruby, etc.
The fodder varieties are a cross between the swede and the aft cabbage. They are distinguished by good taste, not so demanding to the conditions of cultivation and more fruitful. The most popular feed varieties of swede include: Hoffmann, Vyshegorodskuyu, Bangholm and others.
Planting in the ground
As mentioned earlier, the swede is absolutely not afraid of the cold, so its seeds begin to rise at a temperature even a few degrees above zero. So, the first thing you need to sow seedlings either on the windowsill or in the greenhouse. After about a month and a half, when the seedlings grow a little and have a few leaves, you can plant them in open ground.
The optimal time for planting in open ground is spring (the first decade of May). But these terms are not tight, since to a greater degree everything depends on weather conditions. Best of all, fertile soil is suitable for turnips: sandy, loamy or peaty (necessarily cultivated).
The site for swede must be prepared in advance: dug up, saturated with compost / manure (at least 3 kg per square meter of soil), urea (at least 15 g per square meter) and salts - phosphate or potassium (at least 30 g per square meter) .
In the prepared soil we make small holes at a distance of about 25 cm from each other. The distance between the rows is at least half a meter. The wells before planting seedlings must be watered. Cooking clay "talker" and each root dipped into it before planting seedlings, cut off the leaves a little. Do not plant seedlings too deep into the soil. Be sure to lightly tamp the ground and water the planted seedlings.
We control the reproduction of plants in the soil
It is easier to take care of seedlings of rutabaga in the open field: you just need to perform all the basic procedures familiar to every gardener - watering, hilling, loosening the soil, feeding and protection from pests. Then the reproduction of the plant will be carried out rapidly. The last two processes will be discussed below, but for now let's talk about physical tillage.
So, hilling. It is important to make it on time, namely: when the rosettes of covering leaves are formed. The first loosening of the soil is carried out literally a couple of days after planting. This should be done very carefully, submerging the chopper to a depth of no more than 5-8 cm. In general, for the period of swede reproduction in open ground, loosening should be done about 5-6 times, carrying it out parallel to the weeding of the soil.
Since swede loves moisture, it is necessary to water the plant regularly, but do not overdo it (otherwise the fruits will become too watery) - 5-6 irrigations per season will be enough for the swede. How to irrigate swede correctly? On one square meter should be about 10 liters of water.
Council In order not to reduce the nutritional value of the fetus, water the rutabaga should be a special way: water should not fall on the root from above and wash away the ground from there.
Fertilizer and plant nutrition
Swede requires generous fertilizer with various minerals and minerals. So, as early as 14 days after the seedlings are planted in open ground, it is necessary to feed it with manure from the manure after the soil is watered abundantly.
The next time you need to fertilize turnips after it has formed a small root vegetable. For feeding use minerals. For example, swede reacts very well to copper, potassium, phosphorus (it is desirable to use it, since it significantly increases the sugar content of fruits), boron (thanks to it, the flesh remains light and fragrant).
Caution: diseases and pests
The first step in the fight against pests and various diseases will be spreading ash on the seeds of swede seeds a few days after sowing. This procedure will protect future sprouting from cruciferous flea. For swede all those pests are dangerous, as for turnips, cabbage, etc. This - Kila, Bel, slugs, aphids, fleas, etc.
Preventive measures for pest control:
- crop rotation,
- disinfection of seeds before planting in the ground,
- thorough and regular weeding
- cleaning the soil from the remnants of other plants before planting swede,
- deep digging soil
- planting compatible plants.
Possible combinations with other plants
Excellent combination of swede with any kinds of lettuce, herbs (mint, sage, wormwood) is observed. Close to or between the rows of turnips, you can plant marigolds, marigolds - they will scare away many pests (aphids, whitefish, cabbage flies).
Можно также пойти другим путем и посадить рядом с брюквой растения, которые будут приманивать насекомых, охотящихся на вредителей (божьих коровок, комаров, златоглазок и т.д.) – укроп, морковь, сельдерей.
Ни в коем случае нельзя сажать брюкву в те места на огороде, где раньше росли близкие ей культуры: капуста, редис и т.д. But the nightshade, pumpkin and bean predecessors are quite suitable.
Harvesting is carried out 24 weeks after planting, if you want to enjoy a vegetable in the fall and after 32 - if you plan to make winter stocks. If planting is carried out in early summer (relevant for the northern regions), then in the fall, you can also eat rutabagas or even keep it until next spring.
That came to an end our article. We familiarized you with detailed information on how to properly planted swede, take care of it, water it, fertilize it and much more. We hope the information provided will be useful to you. We wish you a rich harvest!
Features and characteristics of swede
A distinctive feature of this root - frost resistance and excellent tolerance to drought. Radish, horseradish, turnip, radish and cabbage of all varieties - plants from the same family with turnips. As it is known, earthling grows for 2 years, in the first 12 months there is a growth of the root crop and leaves, then the plant blooms and produces seeds.
The stem base grows high, and due to the weight, the leaf plates are often lowered. Part of the root is above ground, has a plum shade. Inflorescences are yellow. The shape of the fruit depends on the type of vegetable, usually a pod oblong or similar to a flat oval cylinder. Round brown seeds ripen inside the turnips. The core of the fruit, depending on the species, has a white or yellowish reflux.
Fans of this plant in his taste are similar to the turnip. However, it is useful to know that rutabaga is much healthier and nutritious.
Review of Russian varieties of swede
Experts divide the varieties of this vegetable into feed and table. Feed greens are a hybrid. It perfectly tolerates cold and moisture deficiency, is unpretentious in care and has a rich harvest. The peculiarity of table varieties of root vegetables is the flat-rounded shape of the fruit, as well as the juicy flesh of yellowish color. Popular varieties of dining room swede in Russia are:
- Krasnoselskaya - perfectly stored, different yields. Matures within three to four months, the weight of the root varies from 400 to 600 grams.
- Novgorod - the time of ripening average duration. Fruits are well stored, have a mass of from 500 to 450 grams.
- Children's love is a kind of medium early, the shape of the root is oval-round. Harvest has a weight of 300 to 450 grams.
- Verey - mid-season species, full maturation reaches in 85-95 days. Fruits reach a mass of 250-300 grams.
- Hera is also a mid-season species, fruits of a round shape of anthocyanin coloration. The root mass is not more than 400 grams.
- A bright dream - among the Russian varieties the fastest ripening, ripens in 2-2.5 months. The peel of the fruit with a yellow tint of elongated shape. On average, a ripe rutabaga weighs between 300 and 400 grams.
Growing swede from seeds
How to grow a good harvest swede, every experienced gardener knows. Lovers also need to follow certain recommendations.
First you need to plant seeds for seedlings. When they germinate in the home, the shoots are protected from pest attacks, in particular the cruciferous flea. Before sowing, it is necessary to decontaminate the seeds, for this they are kept for 60 minutes in a solution with garlic. Then the seeds must be washed in normal water and dried.
Fodder beets are sown from the first days of April, and after 40 days, the grown Swedish turnip is planted on the ground. To do this, you need deep boxes with a wet substrate. Sprouts are placed at a depth of approximately 1 centimeter.
The distance between the seeds must be observed within 2 centimeters and 5-7 centimeters between rows. The optimum temperature for good shoots is 17-19 degrees Celsius.
After the appearance of the first shoots of the seeded crop, the cover on the boxes, which created the greenhouse effect, must be removed. And move the containers where the seedlings grow in a cool place, with an average temperature of 6-9 degrees Celsius. After 7 days, the temperature should reach 15 degrees. The key to successful cultivation of swede seedlings is to moisten the soil, loosening and thinning the sprouts.
How to dive
It is not recommended to carry out a pickup for fodder beet, since there is a high probability of damage to brittle roots. For this, experts advise using deep containers for germinating seeds.
To prepare the seedlings for planting in open ground, 10 days before transplanting the boxes with seedlings must be taken out into the yard, gradually adding time. When the duration of the young swede stay in the open air reaches 24 hours, it will be time to land on open ground.
Planting swede in open ground
The presence of 4-5 sufficiently formed leaves on the sprouted seedlings suggests that the moment of the landing of the earth dwelling in open ground has come. It is necessary to pay attention to the weather: if a vegetable is grown in a country house, in a region with a temperate climate, it will be planted after May 20th. Before you start planting, sprouts abundantly watered.
In general, seedlings of fodder beets are planted 40-50 days after sowing, in the spring period - this is the middle or the end of May.
The ripening period of a vegetable plant depends on the variety. For winter storage of the crop, it is recommended to plant those types of swede, which have a long growing season.
Zemlyanuha is planted on neutral soil, the pH of which does not exceed 7.0. Rutabagum grows well in sandy, loamy or peat fertile soil. The important point is the high moisture permeability of the soil in the garden.
The best predecessors in the future landing site of fodder beets are:
- Tomatoes and cucumbers.
- Beans, pepper.
- Bakhcha and eggplants.
- Courgettes or potatoes.
Attention! After harvest of related crops for swede, fodder beets can be planted only after 5 years.
Scheme and depth of landing
Ready for planting sprouts planted in the wells. It is necessary to observe a certain distance between the seedlings so that ripe fruits do not interfere with each other. The distance between the holes - 0.2 meters, and between rows - 50 centimeters.
Before planting, the wells are poured with water, and each sprout is soaked with a root in a clay mash, after which several leaves should be cut. Driving in the wells, pay attention to the fact that the root of the stem of the germ does not touch the ground. The final stage of planting on the site - not much to tamp the soil around the plant and pour water on the seedling.
In the early days, young swede is recommended to be protected from sun exposure.
Specificity of care for turnips
Growing a Swedish turnip is easy. It is required to care for a plant in the same way as for other cultures - watering, ridding of weeds, spuding, feeding and protecting from trouble. Spuding grown bushes is recommended during the ovary of leaf plates.
The soil is loosened to a depth of 5-8 centimeters. Before the procedure, the soil must be moistened.
For the first time, bushes are loosened 48 hours after disembarking a garden bed. Next time it happens in a week. Over the entire period of maturation of the culture, soil loosening is carried out no more than 5 times. To facilitate, the procedure is recommended to be carried out simultaneously with the removal of weeds.
Watering regime and maintaining soil moisture
This vegetable plant ripens well when there is a lot of moisture, but excessive watering will make the fruits watery. Experts recommend moistening the swede bushes 5-6 times during the entire ripening period. Otherwise, when there is not enough water, the root crop will ripen with a hard core and a bitter aftertaste. Early blooming is also possible.
The required amount of water for irrigation is a bucket per square meter of land. It is not recommended to pour water over the top of the vegetable too, which is above the ground. This leads to greening and negatively affects the nutritional value of the vegetable.
To maintain moisture at a sufficient level, the rutabaga is mulched. For mulch fit:
- Sliced nettle.
- Straw cutting.
- Composting from sawdust.
- Sliced leaves and stepchildren tomato.
As for the temperature, it can be said that the swede gives good shoots at an air temperature of 4 degrees Celsius. For the formation of bushes and ripening of root crops suitable 15-18 degrees Celsius. Hot dry weather adversely affects the yield and taste of fodder beet. Already at a temperature of more than 23 degrees, the swede flesh will become dry and tasteless.
An integral part of the care of any crop - timely fertilizer. The first feeding of young shoots is carried out 12-16 days after planting in the ground. To do this, use a large amount of slurry. For the following feeding a complex of minerals is suitable, the procedure is carried out at the time of the formation of root crops. To increase the sugar content of the pulp will help fertilizer phosphorus. Rutabaga bushes are positively affected by potassium, boron, copper and manganese-based fertilizers.
Before planting a vegetable plant, it is recommended to prepare the ground for growing swede in advance. To do this, during the autumn months, under the digging, pour over half a bucket of manure or humus fertilizer for every 100x100 centimeters of land.
Protection against diseases and pests
Those who decide to grow Swedish turnips in the garden should know that they are subject to the same sores and insect attacks as related cultures (radishes, radishes, cabbage varieties, horseradish bushes).
The most common diseases that affect this culture are:
- Felt disease.
- Belle and black leg.
- Vascular bacteriosis and mosaic.
Among the pests are considered dangerous: slugs, sprout and cabbage flies, cruciferous and beetroot bugs, rapeseed tsvetoed, aphid orders.
To prevent the occurrence of disease and damage from insects, adherence to the rules of cultivation helps, decontamination of seeds before sowing into the ground, careful weeding, and after harvesting a deep digging of the plot.
Neighboring plants that will not adversely affect the ripening of the fruit, for example, marigolds, nasturtium, and marigolds, with their scent, drive away the whitefishes, cabbage flies and aphids to help fight pests.
Harvesting and storage
After the sprouted shoots are planted in the garden, the ripening of vegetables occurs in 60-120 days, depending on the variety of the plant. In the case when the storage of fodder beet is planned for a long winter period, the crop must be harvested before the first frost.
Removing the ripe fruit from the soil requires careful not to spoil. At the same time, the bush part of the culture (leaves) is cut close to the base.
After harvesting, the roots must be cleaned of dirt and dried completely, spreading out outside, away from the sun. Washed swede stored in a cool place, pre-distributed in containers. If there is no basement or other suitable premises, the plant will be well preserved in the garden. To do this, not deep trenches are dug up, sawdust or straw is poured into them in a thin layer, then sprinkled with soil.
Growing sprouts seedlings.
How to care for turnips when the seeds begin to germinate? As soon as sprouts appear, the cover from crops is removed and the box is transferred to a room with a temperature of 6-8 ºC, and after a week the temperature is raised to 12-15 ºC. Care of the seedling during the seedling period consists in regular watering, loosening the soil and thinning the seedlings.
As already mentioned, seedlings swede dive extremely undesirable because you can easily damage the roots of seedlings. That is why we recommend growing seedlings in a deep box.
Before transplanting seedlings for gardening, they are hardened for 10–12 days, daily bringing them to fresh air and gradually increasing the duration of the procedure. When the seedlings can spend the day on the street, it can be transplanted to the garden bed.
When to put swede in an open ground.
To the question "When to plant swede in open ground?" we already answered - in about forty or fifty days from the time of sowing, when the seedlings will have 4-5 leaflets. The timing of landing swede also depends on the weather, but the approximate time is mid-May. Landing swede in the suburbs is carried out in the same time frame. Before sampling, turnip seedlings are watered abundantly.
Soil for rutabaga.
Put swede on neutral soils: the optimum pH should be in the range of 5.5-7.0. Sour soil will have to lime, otherwise the swede can hurt and be stored much worse. The composition of the soil for turnips should be fertile - sandy, loamy or cultivated peat. It is very important that the soil on the site is moisture permeable, but the occurrence of groundwater should be deep.
It is best to grow rutabagas after crops such as cucumbers, tomatoes, legumes, pumpkins, melons, eggplants, peppers, squash, zucchini and potatoes, but after crucifers (radish, radishes, turnips, daikon, turnips, watercress, horseradish and any cabbage) swede planted only after 4-5 years.
Prepare a site in advance: from autumn under deep digging, add 3-4 kg of compost, manure or humus, 15 g of urea, 30-40 g of superphosphate and 25-30 g of potassium salt for each m². If you want to liming the area with wood ash or dolomite flour, do it in the fall, too, but not at the same time as fertilizing.
Care of the sweep
For successful growth and development of root crops will require a lot of moisture and nutrients, but of course compliance with a certain temperature.
Watering swede and temperature. The richest crop of swede can be obtained in areas with moist loamy soil. When the summer is dry, watering should be frequent, but moderate. However, it should also not be forgotten that with an excess of moisture the fruits will be tasteless and watery.
If possible, pour warm water for some time.
In addition, it is also necessary to weed in time and loosen the soil, especially at the initial stage, when young seedlings need a lot of nutrients.
The best indicator for the growth and development of swede is a temperature in the range of +16 - +18 degrees. Higher temperatures can affect the quality of the future crop. For example, at a temperature of +21 degrees and above, the fruits will be dry and less tasty.
Fertilization. During the spring - summer period, 2-3 supplements can be made. It is possible to use for these purposes, both organic chemistry, and mineral structures.
In the first half of the summer we are preparing a zonal solution with the addition of superphosphate. This fertilizer is applied strictly after watering and loosening the soil.
The following microelements can have a beneficial effect on the development of root crops: phosphorus, calcium, manganese, copper, boron.
It is noticed that due to phosphorus increases the sugar content, and with a shortage of boron, the flesh becomes brownish and fresh.
Collection and storage of swede
When growing swede autumn frosts can not be afraid, as the roots can be perfectly preserved in the ground to a temperature of -8 degrees. But even despite this, harvesting is recommended before the onset of autumnal cold.
We dig up root crops and carefully clean them from the ground and transfer them to storage in the basement or in the cellar. The temperature in the room should not exceed +4 - +5 degrees. Placed in rows in boxes, pre-sprinkled with river sand. In such conditions, swede can be stored for a long time.
Popular swede varieties
Krasnoselskaya. Table grade mid-ripening. The growing season is from 90 to 120 days. The flesh is sugary, with a yellowish color. The root itself is flat - rounded in shape, gray - greenish in color with a violet hue. Well kept in winter. The weight of the root can range from 300 to 600 g.
Kohalik blueing. Table grade. The root shape is round - flat, with the upper part violet - bronze color and yellow lower part. The flesh is juicy, tough, without bitterness. The root weight is on average 900 g.
Zeltene abolu. Table variety of Latvian selection. Stability is not very good. Root crops are round - flat, gray - green in color, with a slight shade of purple at the top and yellow to the bottom. Vegetation from 70 to 130 days. The flesh is firm, yellow in color. The average weight of the root is 400 g.
Swedish. The dining room is a fodder variety. Vegetation period 125 - 130 days. The shape of the root crops is round or flat - round. Stability is good.
Feed species. Represent hybrids of cabbage and dining swede. They are more productive and not so demanding in the care and growth conditions.
The first written mention of the root crop was dated to 1620, when one of the Swiss botanists, Baugin, awarded the plant with a highly nutritive forage potential.
He believed that swede in the wild grows only in Sweden, but some sources speak of the origin of the vegetable from the latitudes of Siberia, from which it was brought to Scandinavia. Thanks to its nutritional qualities and beneficial properties, swede quickly became a favorite vegetable of European cuisine.
The root crop is actively grown for livestock feed, the culture is unpretentious, gives impressive yields and is distinguished by a modest concentration of vitamins and minerals. Брюква делится на несколько видов, столовые и кормовые, которые в свою очередь включают плоды с желтой и белой мякотью.
According to botanical characteristics, it refers to cold-resistant, unpretentious plants that can withstand short-term frosts and prolonged heat, but in such conditions the consumer properties of the vegetable quickly decrease, the root crop stiffens and gorchit. Therefore, in the southern regions, turnips are sown as one of the first crops in order to have time to get a crop before the onset of drought.
The culture is a perennial plant with high, dense tops, a powerful stem and dissected "wax" leaves, depending on the variety, with or without down.
Root crops are large, with juicy pulp, rounded-flattened, taste with a specific sharpness. The skin is thick, yellow and brown, the color of the stem, depending on the variety, varies from light pink to dark purple.
The stem is sprawling and branched, grows about half a meter, yellow inflorescences are collected in brush. Swede fruits are considered to be an impressive pod with small brown seeds. The average weight of seeds of swede is 3.5 grams for every 1,100 pieces.
The roots of the form vary, there are flat and cylindrical, round and oval. The fleshy part is yellow or white. Swede is considered the closest relative of a turnip, but in many ways surpasses it in nutritional characteristics.
About the beneficial properties of turnips became known since the 17th century.
Due to the high content of vitamins and minerals, the vegetable perfectly copes with immunodeficiencies and calcium deficiency.
Swede seeds are used by herbalists for treating measles, decoctions and infusions of the ground part will be useful for irrigation and mouthwash for inflammatory diseases.
With bronchitis, inhalations of boiled turnips help relieve bronchi from mucus and help to quickly get rid of an upper respiratory tract infection.
Drinking steamed rutabaga can relieve stagnant fluids in the body due to the diuretic properties of the vegetable.
The use of swede reduces the risk of developing gastrointestinal diseases, normalizes stool, relieves constipation. Swede properties are also caused by an antiseptic effect, the pulp of the root crop is placed on shallow wounds and abrasions, which contributes to the rapid healing of tissues.
The high content of vitamin C in the swede, as well as phosphorus, potassium, calcium, group B vitamins, carotene, iodine and fiber, makes the vegetable indispensable on the table in the winter.
Mustard oil, contained in swede, gives the vegetable sharpness and can have a good bactericidal effect both on the mucosa of the mouth and throat, and on soft tissues.
Root crop is also useful for diabetics, and the low calorie content of the product may well fit the swede into the diet of losing weight. Swede was also included in the diet of hypertensive patients, to normalize blood pressure.
There are vegetable and contraindications, persons with individual intolerance to the product, as well as with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract during the period of exacerbation, the use of vegetables is contraindicated.
Today, the most common types of rutabagas are fodder and canteen; it is the forage rutabaga that is most often cultivated and used as animal feed.
The table varieties differ in shape, are flat and round, with yellow and white flesh, the fruit with yellow flesh is considered to be more popular.
One of the oldest varieties of rutabaga is considered to be the Krasnoselsky variety, of medium early ripeness, with yellow flesh, sugary and very tasty. Also grown varieties such as Swedish, Kochalik, Ruby, Lizi and Marian.
Fodder swede varieties, bred by crossing varieties of swede and fodder cabbage. Mid-season varieties of swede are valued for yield and early ripening, these include:
Varietta Swede Wilma, root crops weighing about half a kilogram, differ in long shelf life, and is used both in fresh and steamed form.
Child love, middle-early variety of rutabaga, ripens in three months, has a rounded shape and yellow flesh. Cold-resistant variety, stored for a long time, suitable for use, both in raw and cooked form. With proper care, gives high yields. Root crops are large and juicy.
Krasnoselsky grade, one of the first cultivars.
Differs in precocity, juiciness. Fruits are large, with yellow flesh, rounded shape. Swede sweetener, high yield, suitable for use in any form.
Grade Kohalik, fruitful, mid-season, fruits with an impressive mass, reaching kilograms. The flesh of the fruit is yellow, juicy. The grade carries table appointment, is pleasant on taste. The color of the fruit is pale purple, and the underground part has a light shade.
Swedish rutabaga has yellow flesh and large fruits. It reaches a mass of about a kilogram, has a good taste and a juicy middle part. Gives impressive yields, refers to mid-season varieties and carries table appointment.
Lizzie swede variety the early ripe grade removed rather recently, differs in good taste, universal appointment, at the average sizes to kilogram.
Variety Marian, gives good yields, with a mass of fruits of about 600 grams., is universal purpose, the plant perfectly tolerates temperature drops and is not susceptible to powdery mildew.
Late variety Kuzma, gives high yields, with an average mass of fruits of about 1.5 kg., round and cone-shaped. Easily pulled out of the ground. The color of the fruit is white and purple. The variety is resistant to fungal infections, ripens in 4-5 months.
Swede variety Ruby, cold-resistant plant resistant to fungal infections. Possesses good taste, juicy pulp.
It has a lilac color. It carries a universal purpose, suitable for the table and as animal feed.
Sort Dream mid-season roots, ripen in 4-5 months, have a rounded-oval shape, yellow. With juicy yellow pulp, without bitterness. The grade is cold-resistant, carries table appointment, is used in the fresh and prepared look.
Storage and harvesting swede
The maturation period of swede lasts an average of 4 months. Harvesting is carried out in late autumn before the arrival of the first frost, the harvest is best done in dry weather. Digging is done carefully, without damaging the roots. On an industrial scale, turnips are cleaned with a special technique.
After extraction, the vegetable is dried (in the shade, in a draft), removed tops, cleaned from the ground and put in boxes for storage.
The storage of swede is carried out in basements or cellars at a temperature not higher than +5 degrees and humidity not more than 95%.
With proper care and selection of healthy seed cultivation of rutabaga is not difficult, and the use of agricultural technology will provide you with a good harvest and excellent quality of the product.
How to plant swede in open ground.
Planting swede in open ground is made in the wells, located at a distance of 20 cm in a row, with a row spacing of 45-50 cm. The wells are watered abundantly before planting. When planting seedlings, dip the root of each into a clay mash and cut some of the leaves. Dripping swede, make sure that its root collar is not embedded in the soil. After landing, lightly tamp the ground and water the garden again. The first few days protect seedlings from the sun.
Planting swede under the winter.
When the swede is puddling, the seedlings appear harmonious and even in spring, and the crop ripens 2-3 weeks earlier than during spring sowing. Sowing is done in late autumn when the soil freezes to a depth of 2-5 cm. The site is loosened beforehand and fertilized under deep digging - 6 kg of humus, 25 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium salt and a pound of wood ash are applied for each m². Then, in the soil, wells are made 2.5-3 cm deep at the same distance as when planting the seedlings, a layer of sand is laid into each well, and 2 seeds of turnip are placed on it. Close up the seeds, too, with a layer of dry sand 1-1.5 cm thick, on which a layer of peat compost or humus is placed.
How to grow swede.
And landing, and care for swede do not pose any difficulty. Growing swede in the open field provides for the implementation of the usual for any gardener procedures - watering, hilling, loosening between the rows, weeding the site, feeding and protecting plants from diseases and pests. Hilling swede carried out at the time of formation of rosettes covering leaves. Loosen the soil to a depth of 4-8 cm is most convenient after watering or rain. The first careful loosening is carried out a couple of days after planting the seedlings in the ground, the second time the soil in the garden bed is loosened a week after the first loosening. In total for the season it is necessary to spend 4-5 loosening, combining them with weeding the site.
Swede plant is moisture-loving, but excessive moisture makes the roots watery, so watering the bed with turnips only 3-5 times per season. With insufficient watering, the swede root will be hard and bitter, in addition, the plant will bloom ahead of time. How to water rutabaga? Approximate water consumption is 10 liters per 1 m², and try to pour water so that it does not wash off the soil from the top of the root crop, because from this it shows prozelen, which reduces the nutritional value of the product.
Growing swede and caring for it involves applying fertilizer to the soil. What, when and how to fertilize swede? The first dressing of seedlings is carried out two weeks after the seedlings are planted in open ground. Fertilizer swede exercise slurry after watering the site. The second top dressing in the form of a solution of complex mineral fertilizers is applied when the plants start to form a root crop - the turnips are very fond of potassium, and phosphorus increases the sugar content of the root crop.
It should be borne in mind that rutabaga responds well to the introduction of manganese, boron and copper into the soil, especially since due to the lack of boron, the flesh of the roots becomes dark and loses its taste.
After planting the seedlings on the garden the plants are powdered with wood ash. This is done in order to protect young plants from the cruciferous flea, which affects all cabbage cultures. During the growing season, it is necessary to carefully monitor the turnips in order to detect the symptoms of the disease or signs of the appearance of pests in time and take immediate steps to eliminate the problem. Be prepared to apply traditional methods of combating diseases and insect pests or use insecticides and fungicides if necessary. But do not forget that the treatment of plants with chemicals should be made no later than a month before harvest.
Pests and diseases of swede
Swede, like turnip, radish, horseradish and all types of cabbage, diseases and pests are the same, and we have repeatedly described them in articles devoted to cruciferous cultures. Recall that whitewash, felt disease, kila, mosaic, vascular bacteriosis and blackleg are most often affected by swede, and among the pests the most dangerous for this crop are the sprouting fly, rapeseed beetle, slugs, bugs, aphid, firehorn, fleas, spring cabbage fly and babanuha.
In order to minimize the likelihood of swede damage by diseases and pests, it is necessary to observe crop rotation, decontaminate seeds before sowing, regularly remove weeds from the bed, clean the area from crop residues after harvesting, and carry out deep digging of the soil.
In addition to the implementation of preventive measures and compliance with agricultural technology, it is very important to plant compatible plants near the swede. What to plant with turnips? A good neighborhood for any cruciferous crops are all types of lettuce and aromatic herbs - hyssop, savory, sage, mint, wormwood, chamomile. And in between rows you can land marigolds, marigolds and nasturtiums, deterring aphids, whiteflies and cabbage flies.
Cleaning and storage of swede
From the moment of planting to harvest, the swede takes about 3-4 months - the swede is harvested for winter storage just before the onset of the first frost. When digging, try not to damage the roots, pruning the tops at the very base. Dug out rutabagas are cleaned from the ground, dried in shade on the air, lowered into an unheated vault and put on the floor, in boxes or on shelves. You can put the roots in shallow trenches dug in the garden, and sprinkle them with straw or dry sawdust, and throw it on top of the ground.
Useful properties of swede.
The composition of swede includes sugars, vegetable protein, fats, fiber, easily digestible carbohydrates, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), carotene (provitamin A), vitamins of group B, rutin, essential oil, trace elements potassium, sulfur, sodium, copper, phosphorus and iron. Swede contains a high percentage of calcium, so it is an excellent treatment for softening bone tissue. For a long time, swede seeds have been used for rinsing the mouth in inflammatory processes and treating measles in children.
Rutabaga root vegetables are a good diuretic, anti-burn, wound-healing and anti-inflammatory agent. Juice turnips treated poorly healing purulent wounds and burns. In addition, rutabaga is the most valuable food, especially in winter and spring, during a period of vitamin deficiency. Since rutabaga root vegetables contain a lot of coarse fiber, they are recommended to be eaten for constipation, swede pulp is shown in the treatment of atherosclerosis.
Swede our ancestors have eaten since ancient times, because it was believed that it is a source of vitality for the elderly, and due to the high content of ascorbic acid, it contributes to the rapid recovery from cold and strengthens the immune system. The diuretic effect of swede is used to remove excess fluid from the body in the treatment of hypertension.
Has swede and mucolytic action - dilutes sputum for diseases of the lungs and bronchi: a dry, hacking cough when using swede quickly turns into a productive expectorant cough, after which comes recovery.